[168] All the accused were sentenced to death for treason and executed as soon as they were captured—without ever giving testimony in their defence. Augustus came to power after the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE. Then he settled himself down on the bed, and Augustus left the room. [192] Augustus retaliated by dispatching Tiberius and Drusus to the Rhineland to pacify it, which had some success although the battle of AD 9 brought the end to Roman expansion into Germany. As Tacitus wrote, the younger generations alive in AD 14 had never known any form of government other than the Principate. [207] This continued the tradition of presenting at least two generations of heirs. [84] Perusia also was pillaged and burned as a warning for others. Almost the entire fourth chapter in his publicly released memoirs of achievements known as the Res Gestae was devoted to his military victories and honors. [243], The use of Egypt's immense land rents to finance the Empire's operations resulted from Augustus's conquest of Egypt and the shift to a Roman form of government. If your language skills aren’t already top-notch, then this vocab quiz can get you up to speed! He directed the future of the Empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. [37], Mark Antony was amassing political support, but Octavian still had opportunity to rival him as the leading member of the faction supporting Caesar. [200] He took the consulship in 5 and 2 BC so that he could personally usher them into their political careers,[201] and they were nominated for the consulships of AD 1 and 4. With this title, he boasted his familial link to deified Julius Caesar, and the use of Imperator signified a permanent link to the Roman tradition of victory. Moreover, if a battle was fought in a Senatorial province, Augustus's proconsular imperium maius allowed him to take command of (or credit for) any major military victory. [181], Again, no military effort was needed in 25 BC when Galatia (modern Turkey) was converted to a Roman province shortly after Amyntas of Galatia was killed by an avenging widow of a slain prince from Homonada. We Asked, You Answered. Legally, it was closed to patricians, a status that Augustus had acquired some years earlier when adopted by Julius Caesar. He worked as an official war artist during the First World War and later became famous for his pictures of women (especially his wife Dorelia). [186][187][188] Werner Eck claims that this was a great disappointment for Romans seeking to avenge Crassus's defeat by military means. Spell. The Roman Senate wished subsequent emperors to "be more fortunate than Augustus and better than Trajan". He first appeared on coins at the age of 19, and from about 29 BC "the explosion in the number of Augustan portraits attests a concerted propaganda campaign aimed at dominating all aspects of civil, religious, economic and military life with Augustus's person. [28], Octavius was studying and undergoing military training in Apollonia, Illyria, when Julius Caesar was killed on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC. The cult of Divus Augustus continued until the state religion of the Empire was changed to Christianity in 391 by Theodosius I. Consequently, there are many excellent statues and busts of the first emperor. [69][70] The triumvirs then set in motion proscriptions, in which between 130 and 300 senators[nb 3] and 2,000 equites were branded as outlaws and deprived of their property and, for those who failed to escape, their lives. [176] If he were to die from natural causes or fall victim to assassination, Rome could be subjected to another round of civil war. His father, also named Gaius Octavius, had been governor of Macedonia. Augustus was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia. [144], Soon after his bout of illness subsided, Augustus gave up his consulship. [nb 1] His status as the founder of the Roman Principate (the first phase of the Roman Empire) has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history. The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession. He was succeeded as emperor by his adopted son Tiberius (also stepson and former son-in-law). "Augustus, sir," replied the steward, in the mildest of tones. The Italian Peninsula was left open to all for the recruitment of soldiers, but in reality, this provision was useless for Antony in the East. This in effect gave Augustus constitutional power superior to all other proconsuls in the empire. Publicly, though, his last words were, "Behold, I found Rome of clay, and leave her to you of marble" ("Marmoream se relinquere, quam latericiam accepisset"). [187] Before the final fight with Antony, Octavian's campaigns against the tribes in Dalmatia were the first step in expanding Roman dominions to the Danube. [189] However, Maria Brosius explains that Augustus used the return of the standards as propaganda symbolizing the submission of Parthia to Rome. [113][114] Octavian had previously shown little mercy to surrendered enemies and acted in ways that had proven unpopular with the Roman people, yet he was given credit for pardoning many of his opponents after the Battle of Actium. Meanwhile, in Sicyon, Antony's wife Fulvia died of a sudden illness while Antony was en route to meet her. [165], Likewise, there was a food shortage in Rome in 22 BC which sparked panic, while many urban plebs called for Augustus to take on dictatorial powers to personally oversee the crisis. However, this position did not extend to the censor's ability to hold a census and determine the Senate's roster. In a 2006 biography on Augustus, Anthony Everitt asserts that through the centuries, judgments on Augustus's reign have oscillated between these two extremes but stresses that: Opposites do not have to be mutually exclusive, and we are not obliged to choose one or the other. [208], The only other possible claimant as heir was Postumus Agrippa, who had been exiled by Augustus in AD 7, his banishment made permanent by senatorial decree, and Augustus officially disowned him. Octavian, known to posterity as the Emperor Augustus Caesar, was the first emperor of Rome, the first of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty, the adopted son of his great-uncle Julius Caesar, and possibly the most important man in Roman history. [179], Augustus also promoted the ideal of a superior Roman civilization with a task of ruling the world (to the extent to which the Romans knew it), a sentiment embodied in words that the contemporary poet Virgil attributes to a legendary ancestor of Augustus: tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento—"Roman, remember by your strength to rule the Earth's peoples! [110] Antony and his remaining forces were spared only due to a last-ditch effort by Cleopatra's fleet that had been waiting nearby. [92] Despite setbacks for Octavian, the naval fleet of Sextus Pompeius was almost entirely destroyed on 3 September by General Agrippa at the naval Battle of Naulochus. He rudely demanded to know why Augustus had turned up to a trial to which he had not been called; Augustus replied that he came in the public interest. Judea was added to the province of Syria when Augustus deposed Herod Archelaus, successor to client king Herod the Great (73–4 BC). Augustus rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis ("First Citizen"). [94] Octavian had the Senate grant him, his wife, and his sister tribunal immunity, or sacrosanctitas, in order to ensure his own safety and that of Livia and Octavia once he returned to Rome. [177] Augustus's accumulation of powers was now complete. [194], The illness of Augustus in 23 BC brought the problem of succession to the forefront of political issues and the public. [222] Historians are able to analyze excerpts of letters penned by Augustus, preserved in other works, to others for additional facts or clues about his personal life. Although most accounts of the battle at Philippi have Octavian ill and not involved in the fight, the Roman historian Suetonius in his The Twelve Caesars related a different story. View Notes - World History semester examTerm: Definition: Augustus First ruler of the Roman Empire Term: Definition: Julius Caesar General who brought Gaul under Roman The event was celebrated in art such as the breastplate design on the statue Augustus of Prima Porta and in monuments such as the Temple of Mars Ultor ('Mars the Avenger') built to house the standards. Never have two people been more in love than Augustus Waters and Hazel Grace Lancaster, and now one of them is about to die. Sextus fled to the east with his remaining forces, where he was captured and executed in Miletus by one of Antony's generals the following year. [152] Even worse, the involvement of Marcellus provided some measure of proof that Augustus's policy was to have the youth take his place as Princeps, instituting a form of monarchy – accusations that had already played out. The Senate had no army to enforce their resolutions. [63] When this was refused, he marched on the city with eight legions. [154] Murena disbelieved Augustus's testimony and resented his attempt to subvert the trial by using his auctoritas. Augustus Caesar's World book. In 27 BCE Augustus “restored” the republic of Rome, though he himself retained all real power as the princeps, or “first citizen,” of Rome. [98] In 36 BC, Octavian used a political ploy to make himself look less autocratic and Antony more the villain by proclaiming that the civil wars were coming to an end, and that he would step down as triumvir—if only Antony would do the same. This meant that Augustus was the only individual able to receive a triumph, a tradition that began with Romulus, Rome's first King and first triumphant general. After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, and the legislative assemblies. The Senate granted Augustus a form of general imperium proconsulare, or proconsular imperium (power) that applied throughout the empire, not solely to his provinces. It was there that Antony's fleet faced the much larger fleet of smaller, more maneuverable ships under commanders Agrippa and Gaius Sosius in the Battle of Actium on 2 September 31 BC. Nevertheless, his legacy proved more enduring. Octavian succeeded in a temporary alliance in 40 BC when he married Scribonia, a sister or daughter of Pompeius's father-in-law Lucius Scribonius Libo. [32][33] After landing at Lupiae near Brundisium, Octavius learned the contents of Caesar's will, and only then did he decide to become Caesar's political heir as well as heir to two-thirds of his estate. Octavian lacked the resources to confront Pompeius alone, however, so an agreement was reached with the Second Triumvirate's extension for another five-year period beginning in 37 BC. The provinces not under Octavian's control were overseen by governors chosen by the Roman Senate. [233], The longevity of Augustus's reign and its legacy to the Roman world should not be overlooked as a key factor in its success. (Livy fr. Syria (like Egypt after Antony) was governed by a high prefect of the equestrian class rather than by a proconsul or legate of Augustus. Gaius Octavius, known to history first as Octavian and then as Augustus Caesar, is born in 63 BC in a relatively obscure patrician family. [217] Shotter states that Tiberius focused his anger and criticism on Gaius Asinius Gallus (for marrying Vipsania after Augustus forced Tiberius to divorce her), as well as toward the two young Caesars, Gaius and Lucius—instead of Augustus, the real architect of his divorce and imperial demotion. [135] Further, he was causing political problems by desiring to have his nephew Marcus Claudius Marcellus follow in his footsteps and eventually assume the Principate in his turn,[nb 5] alienating his three greatest supporters – Agrippa, Maecenas, and Livia. Raaflaub, Kurt A. and Toher, Mark (eds.). [260] Among the best known of many surviving portraits are the Augustus of Prima Porta, the image on the Ara Pacis, and the Via Labicana Augustus, which shows him as a priest. (1878-1961) a Welsh painter. The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despi… "[128][134], By 23 BC, some of the un-Republican implications were becoming apparent concerning the settlement of 27 BC. This caused them to insist upon Augustus's participation in imperial affairs from time to time. Augustus was intelligent, decisive, and a shrewd politician, but he was not perhaps as charismatic as Julius Caesar and was influenced on occasion by Livia (sometimes for the worse). [145], During the second settlement, Augustus was also granted the power of a tribune (tribunicia potestas) for life, though not the official title of tribune. [163] Tiberius, Augustus's eldest stepson by Livia, was the only other general to receive a triumph—for victories in Germania in 7 BC. According to a senatus consultum quoted by Macrobius, Sextilis was renamed to honor Augustus because several of the most significant events in his rise to power, culminating in the fall of Alexandria, fell in that month. [128] However, he renounced flaunting insignia of power such as holding a scepter, wearing a diadem, or wearing the golden crown and purple toga of his predecessor Julius Caesar. On 6 March 12 BC, after the death of Lepidus, he additionally took up the position of pontifex maximus, the high priest of the college of the Pontiffs, the most important position in Roman religion. [216], Augustus's reign laid the foundations of a regime that lasted, in one form or another, for nearly fifteen hundred years through the ultimate decline of the Western Roman Empire and until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. The Senate's proposal was a ratification of Octavian's extra-constitutional power. This union produced five children, three sons and two daughters: Gaius Caesar, Lucius Caesar, Vipsania Julia, Agrippina the Elder, and Postumus Agrippa, so named because he was born after Marcus Agrippa died. He was short of stature, although Julius Marathus, his freedman and keeper of his records, says that he was five feet and nine inches (just under 5 ft. 7 in., or 1.70 meters, in modern height measurements), but this was concealed by the fine proportion and symmetry of his figure, and was noticeable only by comparison with some taller person standing beside him...",[256] adding that "his shoes [were] somewhat high-soled, to make him look taller than he really was". [220] The inscriptions in Latin featured translations in Greek beside it, and were inscribed on many public edifices, such as the temple in Ankara dubbed the Monumentum Ancyranum, called the "queen of inscriptions" by historian Theodor Mommsen. [55] Cicero also defended Octavian against Antony's taunts about Octavian's lack of noble lineage and aping of Julius Caesar's name, stating "we have no more brilliant example of traditional piety among our youth. [203] In that year, Tiberius was also granted the powers of a tribune and proconsul, emissaries from foreign kings had to pay their respects to him, and by AD 13 was awarded with his second triumph and equal level of imperium with that of Augustus. [133] If he refused to symbolize his power by donning and bearing these items on his person, the Senate nonetheless awarded him with a golden shield displayed in the meeting hall of the Curia, bearing the inscription virtus, pietas, clementia, iustitia—"valor, piety, clemency, and justice.