In this period there are endosperm cellularizations that define the final fruit size and are important to proceed with the thinning of the bad pollinated fruit to avoid loose of energy and favorite the growing of the best pollinated fruit. If it is an apple, a pear, a peach or a plum, you probably cut out the seeds and put them in the compost bin. For example, stresses against pollen during harvest and manipulation result in decrease of germination energy more than decrease of germinability. Both liquid and dry pollinations are effective if done at the right flowering stage: liquid pollination not later than early petal fall stage, dry pollination, with pure pollen, at petal fall stage (in cv. Yellow color is for dry pollination system: Green color is for natural pollination (control). Normally, pollen is sprayed over the whole vine so a lot is wasted when it lands on leaves. The different media showed a different percentage of germination and germination energy (given by start time of germination and final lengths of pollen tubes; Table 1). BACKGROUND: Kiwifruit (cv. Artificial pollination is essential in Japan to produce kiwifruit of marketable size and shape. Providing artificial pollination solutions worldwide. The experiences developed in kiwifruit lead to define a new model crop fruit set that could be applied to anemophilous pollinated plants such as olive tree, where the fruit set are lower than 2%. The pollination efficiency is evident at the harvest but could be useful approximately within 30 days after pollination (see related movie). In these plants, the flowers are very small and extremely numerous, so the pollination was difficult to study. Open-pollinated plants were used as control in all the experiments. Also, a modest improvement in the percentage of fruit setting leads to significant production increase . This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In November 2010, the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. During storing, the germinability decreases about 1.8% per day at 4°C and 3.4% per year during 3 years of observation when stored at −18°C. Step 2. Therefore pollination appears to be a key factor for the economic success of kiwi orchards. KiwiFruit POLLINATION PRODUCTS AND APPLICATION SERVICES PollenPlus is the leading male kiwifruit pollen producer in the Bay Of Plenty, New Zealand. Furthermore, in yellow flesh kiwifruit (but also in green ones), often male plants were not planted in the orchard in order to have a higher yield (male occupy 16% of the surface) and an easier management of the plants (treatments for plant protection due the higher disease susceptibility of male, pruning, fertilization, and irrigation). High-quality pollen is essential for good pollination, but pollination efficiency depends also on the equipments used and the time of application: dry pollination with pure pollen or diluted with lycopodium, liquid pollination in water suspension with adjuvants, handing application, or with mechanized tools . The pollens were extracted from the machine and placed at 4°C every 45 min. Despite this configuration, ideated by Tacconi Lorenzo in 1987, the pollination efficiency is low and is necessary in collecting and distributing pollen to obtain fruits with good size. Also, an increase in male:female ratio to 1:1 (Figure 3) was not enough, in many cases, to optimize the pollination. Pendolino, Moraiolo, and Casaliva and stored at 4°C for a few days until the time of pollination. Artificial Pollination PollenPlus is a leading provider of high viability male kiwifruit pollen and pollen application services including QuadDuster and handheld blow-on system. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Actinidia flowering is scalar, and the same flower is viable for about 4 days, in normal climatic condition, after that the pistil degenerates and starts the fruit set (Figure 11 and related movie). These experiments have led to a larger trials on Lake of Garda cultivation conducted by AiPol (www.aipol.bs.it) in collaboration with CREA and new trials in other regions  and in other countries like in Japan by Associazione Italia Giappone and Biotac (www.biotac.it). Contact our London head office or media team here. Due to the current Corona developments we feel it is important to keep you as a customer updated on how we are managing this situation as a company. Two artificial pollination field trials were carried out in Central Chile (32°S. Many kiwifruit orchards rely on artificial pollination, as well as pollination by bees, to ensure effective pollination takes place. Despite the pollen collected during the day when air RH is low, olive pollen has a higher RH than kiwifruit pollen, and the incubation at 4°C for 24 h with silica gel before storing or spreading is suitable. Kiwifruit artificial pollination is nowadays a consolidate technique to increase kiwifruit quality and size [8, 24]. Pollination in Kiwi Farming. People collect pollen by hand from male flowers and spread it onto female flowers. actinidiae . Available from: Plant Breeding from Laboratories to Fields, The interaction between pollination systems and flowering stage in Actinidia, CREA Research Centre for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l'analisi dell'economia agraria (CREA), Fiorenzuola d’Arda, Piacenza, Italy. The pollen samples were collected in two seasons (2008 and 2009) having opposite conditions of high relative humidity (RH) and low temperatures and low RH and high temperatures, respectively. Artificial pollination is the process of humans pollinating crops instead of bees. The kiwi fruits need high levels of pollination, unlike most other fruits (about 13,000 pollen grains per stigma compared to only 12 grains for apple flowers). Moreover, it is possible to establish a pollen bank for the farmers and for research purposes and identify some varieties with the higher compatibility producing the higher amount of pollen and perhaps a universal pollinizer. This experiment was repeated for 4 years in Verona, Cuneo, and Latina using Soffi@PollineZ for dry pollination and a sprayer diaphragm pump for liquid pollination. Germination latency period and tube length are inversely proportional to the temperature of germination (Figure 7). One advantage of artificial pollination is the possibility to store pollen at −18°C for years maintaining its viability. Regarding liquid pollination, the best results were at full bloom and at early petal fall (Figures 11 and 12A), whereas for dry pollination, the best results were reached at petal fall (Figures 1 and 12B) before pistil senescence . Many steps of pollination were optimized, and many parameters were evaluated during the experimentations. Read more. After the first evidence where liquid pollination appears more efficient before petal fall, the interaction between flowering stage and pollination system was investigated. The pistil’s exudate production increases during flower life and, in cv. Boost my pollination; Koppert COVID-19 Update. Pollination of crop plants is often the major requirement in achieving sufficient crop set [1, 2]. Pollination is one of the most important activities in the orchard calendar. This difference is due to the lower pressure inside the filter system and, therefore, lower temperature in comparison to external one, such that water vapor in the air is condensed and extracted. Kiwifruit artificial pollination, in conventional orchard, increases the production up to 30% (Figures 10 and 12) due to bigger fruit size. reared in artificial nest aggregations and delivered to crop sites. This method has been increasing in farming due to the decline of honeybees. These installations reduce the ventilation and indeed pollen movement. Schematic representation of the operating principle of the two pollen separation systems and related critical points. C.F. To get a detailed experimentation, many parameters must be taken into account. This is a technique similar to the one biologist Mendel used while studying genetics and inheritance. The liquid distribution was 12 g/l of pollen in deionized water and 5 ml/l of activator PollenAid (Kiwi Pollen, New Zealand) for a total of 50 l/ha of water suspension. Supplementary pollination is a valid support to increase productivity in crop species such as strawberry [4, 5], olive , kiwifruit [7, 8], almond [9, 10], pistachio [11, 12], hazelnut , macadamia [14, 15] and date palm [16, 17]. The male and female reproductive parts are in separate flowers, which grow on separate plants. Pollen was collected from olive cv. Those parameters were well defined in Actinidia in recent studies, however, they remain quite undefined for other anemophilous pollinated trees such as olive tree, hazelnut, pistachio, and palm. It takes place in the days after petal drop . The interaction of the pollination systems and the flowering stage were also evaluated. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? In particular, two levels in the canopy and one shoot in each cardinal point per tree were considered. 1 Introduction. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Fruits marked at the time of harvesting with the ribbon attached during pollination in order to go back the original flowering stage during pollination. The kiwi fruits are not self-pollinating, so part of each orchard must be devoted to male vines unless pollen is brought in for artificial pollination. Different pollination machines are available in the market, and these fall in two categories basing on the separation system: filter and cyclone (centrifugation). Hayward in field condition with three repetitions per treatment, among 5 years (2009–2013) in three different environments: Cuneo (NO Italy), Verona (NE Italy), and Latina (Central Italy). The analyses carried out show how the result evaluation of germination could vary according to the growth media used and depending on the moment in which the observation is made. The analysis of these aspects could be applied to other crops and could be summarized in a flowchart where physiological aspects and human practices/decisions are integrated (Figure 4). We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Psa3 was said to have been introduced to New Zealand by a consignment of kiwifruit pollen imported into New Zealand from China for the new use of commercial artificial pollination of kiwifruit orchards. To test the in vitro germination conditions, the germination of two pollen samples (collected with Aspir@Polline TR and AspiraPollineMini2, Biotac) on different agar growth media was compared (Table 1). To reduce labour requirements during production, it is important to increase the efficiency of pollination. chinensis) is a dioecious plant, and, in order to have good pollination, in orchard, there are female and male plants in 6:1 ratio. Fruit only grows from the female flowers, so growers put a few male plants amongst many female ones. The first experiences have shown a great potential and have encouraged the development of this technique. Using the methods described (Figure 4), it is possible to set up experiments that allow to investigate the pollination process in more detail in order to understand, also at the molecular level (Figures 14 and 15), the fertilization, the fruitlet drop, and the alternate bearing. Unlike happen in kiwifruit, in olive tree the pollination technique is at the begin but with very interesting perspectives. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The pollination was made one time in the early morning with moderate air temperature and higher RH, at the middle of flowering when 95% of flowers were open and many corollas were fallen down but with white pistils. Parts of the chapter was taken from our previously published papers, with the permission of the coauthors. All these parameters were recorded also for some pollinizer plants in order to understand the influence of pollen collection in the hypothesis of a yield reduction due to pollen subtraction or not. Pollen germinability was evaluated as described for Actinidia. Time lapse during pollen germination at 20°C: the number indicates hours. Supplying pollen, artificial pollination products and services to kiwifruit growers nationwide. The humidity of the pollen is important for pollen long-term storage. The role of Lycopodium was evaluated in 2013 in Verona by comparing two systems of dry pollination with and without Lycopodium added. As a company of innovation, Kiwi Pollen is constantly working on research and development which will advance artificial pollination practises and complement current technology. Licensee IntechOpen. Welcome to Polli Artificial Kiwifruit Pollination. Kiwifruit vine artificial pollination was firstly studied in New Zealand and in Italy in the 80s in order to optimize the kiwifruit fruit set and production. Kiwifruit artificial pollination is nowadays a consolidate technique to increase kiwifruit quality and size [8, 24]. During harvesting period it was noted that the pollen collected at the beginning of the flowering is very low (few grams per hour), while after full blooming, when 20–30% of the corollas drop down, the amount reaches 100 g/h in many cultivars (also in “olivastro”) and also 200 g/h in Ascolana. The suspension of pollen is transferred from the mixing vessel. The experimentations started on 2014 thanks to the resourcefulness of an olive grower, Gianfranco D’Isola, on Lake of Garda (Brescia, North Italy). Moreover, depending on the cultivar, the environmental conditions, the specific tree and shoot, and ovary abortion could occur many weeks after pollination . If there are other flowers around a kiwifruit orchard, insects may visit them instead. Journal of South African Society of Horticulture Science, 1, 17-23. The fruit size obtained in the thesis pollinated with pollen-Lycopodium mixture was lower than the thesis pollinated with pure pollen: average weight 96 g with the addition of lycopodium, 106 g with pure pollen, and 75 g free pollinated fruit (data not shown). Insufficient pollination has been found to be one of the important causative factors of low yield and low quality in many fruit tree species . The ratio normally used for the most efficient pollination is one male vine to 3-8 female vines, which will ensure maximum fruit yield per surface area. In these experiments, the fruit set improvement ranges from 10 to 30% more than the control free pollinated. The kiwifruit plant is dioecious, which means there is a male plant that pollinates a female plant, which will in turn produce fruit. Polli is highly cost effective and is a proven kiwifruit pollination method that increases fruit size, increases yield and generates higher grower returns. Artificial Pollination in Kiwifruit and Olive Trees, Pollination in Plants, Phatlane William Mokwala, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74831. These parameters were evaluated under different conditions of pollen harvesting, conservation at different temperatures and different times, exposition at different temperatures, and manipulation before and during pollination. Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. Different letters indicate statistically significant differences (ANOVA Tukey P 0.05). By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. The low pollination rate observed using the pollen-Lycopodium mix Speedy machine (Figure 9A) is due to the drying effect of the Lycopodium on pistils and does not depend on the machine: the addition of Lycopodium to the Soffi@Polline gave the same results. A Tauranga kiwifruit orchardist has one less challenge on his plate this spring by using the PollenSmart artificial pollination machine for the second consecutive season. Experimental design consisted of three theses (two rows each): pollination with the Soffi@Polline system with pure pollen, pollination with SoffiaPolline with pollen:Lycopodium mixture (55%:45%), and pollination with Speedy with pollen:Lycopodium mixture (55%:45%). Pollen was stored at 4°C for short-term usage and at low temperature (−20 and −80°C) for long-term usage. Here, we compared the efficiency of artificial and bee pollination practices on the mean level and stability of pollination and fruit production of kiwifruit. In Actinidia, fertilization appends within only 6 h after pollination (Figure 15), and this aspect facilitates the study of the relation between the moment of pollination and the flower stage. Keywords: sunflower / bee pollination / hybrid seed production Introduction Adequate pollination of kiwi flowers guarantees better fruit quality and higher fruit weight. (A) Male flower, (B) pollen during germination under optical microscope (40×), and (C) magnification of germinated pollen stained with aniline blue under UV light (100×). It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. Casaliva as pollinizer. In order to pollinate early and late flowering flowers, the pollination must be done in two steps or more in particular in yellow flash kiwifruit. Result of olive tree pollination on self-sterile cv. *Address all correspondence to: firstname.lastname@example.org. Tacconi Gianni and Michelotti Vania (June 6th 2018). Among the "new pollinators" are a number of old, native North American species which have been both encouraged to pollinate crops and in some cases, actually managed, i.e. Different letters indicate statistically significant differences (ANOVA Tukey P 0.05). Leccino. Artificial pollination is the process of applying pollen to plants that would normally be applied by the insects that pollinate plants. Female kiwifruit flowers are hand pollinated using high viability pollen that is impregnated on a velvet strip. The Actinidia floral biology could be useful as model of wind-pollinated trees in field condition. The comparing of pollination-systems (Figures 9 and 10) was conducted in collaboration with Agrion (Cuneo,www.agrion.it); the pollination was carried out with 90% of flowers at the stage of petal fall (with white pistils) with 600 g of pollen per hectare with a single-step distribution. The movement of pollen and flowers between orchards and regions must … Kiwifruit flowers are pollinated by insects, but the flowers are a bit unusual. Dr Mark Goodwin and Dr Paul Martinson at Plant & Food Research are developing a machine called a RoboBee that can sense which flowers are female and spray pollen directly on to them. The contribution of honey-bee to kiwifruit pollination is essential although other insects as well as the wind can bring pollen to … These parameters were recorded just before flowering and during all flowering time every day and once a week after the end of flowering for 6 weeks to take in account abortion and fruitlet abscission. In 1962, New Zealand growers began calling it "kiwifruit" to give it more market appeal, and this name has been widely accepted and publicized despite the fact that it is strictly artificial and non-traditional. Dynamic of pollen germination at different temperatures and tube elongation. In the reported studies, many parameters were analyzed alone and in interaction in different environments in Italy and for many years: pollen quality, pollination system, and flowering stage. The following experiments will elucidate this aspect . In other terms, it seems that liquid pollination could be better before petal fall. Lat.) However, artificial pollination efficiency depends on many parameters such as pollen quality (germinability, humidity, and conservation), pollination system (dry or liquid), coadjuvants, and flowering stage. The germination temperature test was made with fresh Tumuri pollen (collected with Aspir@Polline TR Biotac) on standard substrate (sucrose 85 g/l, boric acid 0.5 g/l) by taking a photo of the same field of view under microscope every minute for 14 h. The temperatures considered were 18, 24, and 30°C. New histological analysis is under way in order to study the relationship between flower stage and ovary maturation. Pollination of Kiwifruit Kiwifruit typically have a simple flower, no nectar reward, male and female plants produce pollen (female pollen is inert, non viable) Male plants are typically distributed at equal distance from each other in the orchard Tumuri (male) in the Tacconi Lorenzo’s farm in Verona (North Italy), on a plantation built in 1982, (T-bar system, 4.5 × 3 m) having a permanent corded male suspended in the middle of the inter-row (Figure 3). Moreover, in olive tree, a greater pollination and fruiting cause a slower ripening of the drupes, and consequently harvest times are more suitable to the improvement of olive and oil quality. Different letters indicate statistically significant differences (ANOVA Tukey P 0.05). Most kiwifruit have about 1,000 tiny seeds, and they give the fruit an interesting, crunchy texture so we leave them in. Pollen germinability ranges from 35 to 68% and RH from 15 to 26% just after collection. The first parameter that is considered to define the pollen quality is the germinability. Because these experiments aim to a practical application for farmers, the field trials were done in conventional orchards with pollinizers present in order to evaluate the effective gains given by the pollination technique in the real situations. The germination was made at a constant temperature of 20°C in a growth chamber (Sanyo Gallenkamp PLC, Loughborough, UK) with RH 100% and with cold light. Usually, the best pollination method considered is the manual method of pon-pon but because of its considerable employment of labor is rarely used in commercial orchards. Frantoio was dead because of frost winter. Shedding of staminate flowers begins just after full bloom  and partially overlaps the abscission of unfertilized flowers, triggered by pollination and fertilization of adjacent flowers. This observation leads to define kiwifruit pollination as a new model for crop fruit pollination that could be applied in other wind pollination (anemophily) trees such as olive tree, hazelnut, and pistachio that were studied but without a practical application (Figure 4) [6, 12, 13]. (A) “speedy” (Dall’Agata, Forlì, Italy) is a battery dry distributor for pollen: Lycopodium (45–55%) mix (5–7 h/ha); (B) “ElettroEASY” (Volpi, Mantova, Italy) is a battery diaphragm pump for liquid pollination (4 h/ha); (C) “Soffi@PollineZ” (Biotac, Verona, Italy) is an engine blower with dry distributor for pure pollen for dry pollination (1 h/ha); (D) “Spruzz@Polline TR” (Gerbaudo, Cuneo, Italy) is a sprayer with fogger-type nozzles attached to the tractor, for liquid pollination (2 h/ha); (E) “pon-pon” (homemade ball covered with velluto) for flower-to-flower manual dry pollination) (25 h/ha); and (F) “Ventole” (Romani, Verona, Italy) consists of two fans attached to the tractor for air and pollen shuffling (0.5 h/ha). Artificial pollination leads also to increase final set, weight, kernel recovery, and, in many cases, fruit quality in terms of nutritional characteristics and shelf life . Kiwifruit flowers do not have nectar to attract insects. Here, publicized works but also original researches data are reported. Olive fruit set are very low, less than 2% of flowers, which in Northern Italy means about 10 kg of fruit per plant . Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Built by scientists, for scientists. This phenomenon is visible observing the longitudinal section of the fruit (Figure 13) because, excluding phenomena of water stress, the ovule’s maturation is not simultaneous and starts from the petiole side to the tip side of the flower. Longitudinal section of the fruit showing lack of seeds on the tip due to not fertilized ovules because of an early pollination (right). The process from pollen adhesion to fertilization could be observed in vivo by staining the pollen with aniline blue under UV light (Figures 14 and 15). It was commercially adopted as the trade name in 1974. Female flowers have no nectar but use fake pollen to attract pollinating insects. However, pollination not always reacts with maximum efficiency: the results could change in different years and depend on the pollen harvesting system, pollen storage technique, pollination system (dry or wet), added substance to dilute pollen (dry or liquid) or to help the germination, pollination equipment, moment of pollination, floral stage of application, and economic impact of the operation (cost and gain). Moreover, the pollinizer plant where pollen was collected, often self-compatible, showed a fruit set about 10% higher than the control (Table 2). Artificial pollination was tested by taking advantage of previous expertise developed in artificial pollination of Actinidia, using Aspir@PollineMini2 (Figure 16) to suck pollen and Soffi@PollineZ (Figures 9C and 16) (Biotac, Verona, Italy). Is under way in order to support the greater production William Mokwala,,. Of open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, want to get a experimentation! 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