For example, the efficiency of fault detection. However, SLOC measures are often stated without giving their definition, and logical SLOC can often be significantly different from physical SLOC. This is a 20K-LOCer. Thus, SLOC can be effective in estimating effort. In this case study, the five software metrics- lines of code (LOC), cyclomatic complexity (MVG), Halstead volume (HV), number of modules (NOM) and lines of comment (COM) have been utilized to analyze a set of three java based sorting programs. Software metrics can be classified into two types as follows: 1. On a more granular level, software development managers are trying to: 1. ", "Live from WWDC 2006: Steve Jobs Keynote", "Linux Kernel Development: How Fast it is Going, Who is Doing It, What They are Doing, and Who is Sponsoring It", "Summary, Outlook, Statistics - The H Open: News and Features", "a short history of lines of code (loc) metrics", "From the Ground Up: The DIMACS Software Security Workshop", "Software Size Measurement: A Framework for Counting Source Statements", Definitions of Practical Source Lines of Code, Effective Lines of Code eLOC Metrics for popular Open Source Software, "Tanenbaum outlines his vision for a grandma-proof OS", C. M. Lott: Metrics collection tools for C and C++ Source Code, Folklore.org: Macintosh Stories: -2000 Lines Of Code, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Source_lines_of_code&oldid=963439985, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Wikipedia introduction cleanup from April 2012, Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from April 2012, All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify, Articles needing additional references from February 2010, All articles needing additional references, Articles with too many examples from May 2012, Wikipedia articles with style issues from May 2012, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with weasel words from September 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2009, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2005, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles that may contain original research from April 2011, All articles that may contain original research, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Multiple choice questions on Software Engineering topic Software Metrics. Reduce costsThese goals ca… The lines of code needed to develop the application would certainly not be the same. Product Metrics:These are the measures of various characteristics of the software product. Assessing the quality of software can be a difficult, often subjective process. It was one discrete object that was easily counted. Tracking and reporting of productivity and defect rates poses a serious problem in this case, since defects cannot be attributed to a particular language subsequent to integration of the system. As you might imagine, every source had their own theories about which metrics mattered most. 2 logical lines of code (LLOC): what about all the work writing non-statement lines? According to Vincent Maraia,[3] the SLOC values for various operating systems in Microsoft's Windows NT product line are as follows: David A. Wheeler studied the Red Hat distribution of the Linux operating system, and reported that Red Hat Linux version 7.1[6] (released April 2001) contained over 30 million physical SLOC. Are data declarations included? Difference in languages: consider two applications that provide the same functionality (screens, reports, databases). software systems. Open source software is computer software distributed with a license that allows anyone to see, use and modify the original code. And this is 50K-LOCs. Software measurement is a titrate impute of a characteristic of a software product or the software process. Many empirical software engineering studies show that there is a great need for repositories where source code is acquired, filtered and classified. Ugh! Another increasingly common problem in comparing SLOC metrics is the difference between auto-generated and hand-written code. In many cases, an open source project attracts other developers who contribute to the project. Although, a lot of researches analyze the relation of source code metrics to other objective measures, only a few studies deal with their expressiveness of subjective feelings of … The metrics variation analysis presented in the previous section examined the effect over the source code metrics after source code refactoring. Maintainability measures how easily software can be maintained. In this case study, the five software metrics- lines of code (LOC), cyclomatic complexity (MVG), Halstead volume (HV), number of modules (NOM) and lines of comment (COM) have been utilized to analyze a set of three java based sorting programs. Context Source code metrics are essential components in the software measurement process. SLOC counting exhibits further accuracy issues at comparing programs written in different languages unless adjustment factors are applied to normalize languages. Furthermore, inexperienced developers often resort to code duplication, which is highly discouraged as it is more bug-prone and costly to maintain, but it results in higher SLOC. Once measures are collected they are converted into metrics for use. Where E= Efforts (Person Per Month) DOC=Documentation (Number of Pages) D = Duration (D, in months) L = Number of Lines per code Problems with multiple languages: in today's software scenario, software is often developed in more than one language. For business: A: Number of man-hours. What happens if a statement extends over several lines? Because he's made something smaller and faster, less K-LOC. Other objectives of using software metrics are listed below. A software metric is a standard of measure of a degree to which a software system or process possesses some property. The following example shows a comparison of a "hello world" program written in C, and the same program written in COBOL - a language known for being particularly verbose. Software Metrics MCQ. This model is an example of the static, single variable model. Manage workloads 4. Smart contracts’ source codes have been validated by EtherScan, and each contract comes with its own associated software metrics as computed by the freely available software PASO. Many empirical software engineering studies show that there is a need for repositories where source codes are acquired, filtered and classified. The vast majority of existing quality models use source code metrics for measuring low level quality attributes. SLOC measures are somewhat controversial, particularly in the way that they are sometimes misused. Developer's experience: implementation of a specific logic differs based on the level of experience of the developer. Code coverage. In the PBS documentary Triumph of the Nerds, Microsoft executive Steve Ballmer criticized the use of counting lines of code: In IBM there's a religion in software that says you have to count K-LOCs, and a K-LOC is a thousand lines of code. It is much easier to create tools that measure physical SLOC, and physical SLOC definitions are easier to explain. For example, most software systems reuse code, and determining which (if any) reused code to include is important when reporting a measure. These Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) should be practiced to improve the Software Engineering skills required for various interviews (campus interview, walk-in interview, company interview), placements, entrance exams and other competitive examinations. Even if a metric is not a measurement, often the two terms are used as synonyms. depends on previous processing (S, Number of components having single entry and exit (S. Measures defined for data and control flow coupling are listed below. On the other hand, process based metrics that measure the changing nature of the software are collected over a certain period of time and might be related to developers, revisions and source code changes. Counting SLOC as productivity measure has its caveats, since a developer can develop only a few lines and yet be far more productive in terms of functionality than a developer who ends up creating more lines (and generally spending more effort). The number is an estimate published on 2012-02-13, using the code base which would become Debian 7.0, using the same software method as for the data published by David A. Wheeler. IEEE defines metric as 'a quantitative measure of the degree to which a system, component, or process possesses a given attribute.' This is undesirable, since increased complexity can lead to increased cost of maintenance and increased effort required for bug fixing. To improve any process, it is necessary to measure its specified attributes, develop a set of meaningful metrics based on these attributes, and then use these metrics to obtain indicators in order to derive a strategy for process improvement. Though organizations like SEI and IEEE have published some guidelines in an attempt to standardize counting, it is difficult to put these into practice especially in the face of newer and newer languages being introduced every year. Anyway, that always makes my back just crinkle up at the thought of the whole thing. By using the above mentioned measures, module-coupling indicator (m, Note that K, a, b, and c are empirically derived. Today, the most commonly used computer languages allow a lot more leeway for formatting. Identify areas of improvement 3. This is the proportion of source code that automated tests cover. Using software process metrics, software engineers are able to assess the efficiency of the software process that is performed using the process as a framework. This section focuses on "Software Metrics" of Software Engineering. Oh, it's sort of a 10K-LOC project. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Quantifying the Benefits of Using Function Points", "More Than a Gigabuck: Estimating GNU/Linux's Size", "Counting potatoes: the size of Debian 2.2", "Debian Wheezy: US$19 Billion. Software Requirements MCQ. Since quantitative measurements are essential in all sciences, there is a continuous effort by computer science practitioners and theoreticians to bring similar approaches to software … You can’t use a … However, a logical code counting utility developed for a specific language cannot be used for other languages due to the syntactical and structural differences among languages. How big a project is it? While these models have shown good predictive power, they are only as good as the estimates (particularly the SLOC estimates) fed to them. Hence, number of lines of code differs from person to person. The values of m, Halstead proposed the first analytic laws for, Number of modules that have been changed in the current release (F, Number of modules that have been added in the current release (F, Number of modules that have been deleted from the current release (F, Designing Software Metrics in Software Engineering, Object Oriented Metrics in Software Engineering, Software Engineering – What is Software Engineering? Software Measurement: A measurement is an manifestation of the size, quantity, amount or dimension of a particular attributes of a product or process. At the time that people began using SLOC as a metric, the most commonly used languages, such as FORTRAN and assembly language, were line-oriented languages. One of the applications is written in C++ and the other application written in a language like COBOL. Very often, a number of languages are employed depending on the complexity and requirements. Metrics simply measures quantitative assessment that focuses on countable values most commonly used for comparing and tracking performance of system. This section focuses on "Software Requirements" of Software Engineering. Let's do everything today. Motivations for using metrics in software engineering ! This is post 1 of 1 in the series “Measuring and Managing Software Quality”. Most of the literature about software metrics on the source code is within one system. A comprehensive overview of these metrics is provided by the Software Engineering Institute [SEI]. Lack of counting standards: there is no standard definition of what a line of code is. It is an authority within software engineering. This forms a community where those involved improve and enhance the software. For instance, graphical user interface builders automatically generate all the source code for a graphical control elements simply by dragging an icon onto a workspace. Good developers may merge multiple code modules into a single module, improving the system yet appearing to have negative productivity because they remove code. Metrics are used in different scenarios like analyzing model, design model, source code, testing, and maintenance. – These are the questions that often arise. An experienced developer may implement certain functionality in fewer lines of code than another developer of relatively less experience does, though they use the same language. Some of the product based metrics that measure the source code related attributes of a software product are Object Oriented metrics (CK suite) , Halstead metrics , McCabe metrics , and line of code metrics. Context. Process Metrics:These are the measures of various characteristics of the software development process. Quality and reliability of software. It was the visible output of the programmer, so it made sense to managers to count lines of code as a measurement of a programmer's productivity, even referring to such as "card images". Considering how software is developed during a release cycle (implementation, testing, bug fixing, release) I was thinking that one should be able to see some pattern in the lines of code that are changed in the code base; e.g. Your price… FREE! and byte code) are freely and immediately available and are classified based on the main software metrics identified in the scientific literature. Having some heuristics and metrics that measure an application’s source code provides a useful starting point, and observing these metrics over time can identify important trends. Debian 7.0 was released in May 2013. These metrics can be computed for different stages of SDLC. Before writing this article, we digested the metrics proposed by the top 20 Google results in the domain of software metrics. For coder's supervisor: A: Doesn't matter. The work involved in creating this code cannot reasonably be compared to the work necessary to write a device driver, for instance. How many K-LOCs did you do? The goal of software metrics is to identify and control essential parameters that affect software development. The number of function points would be exactly the same, but aspects of the application would be different. 4 physical lines of code (LOC): is placing braces work to be estimated? And we kept trying to convince them – hey, if we have – a developer's got a good idea and he can get something done in 4K-LOCs instead of 20K-LOCs, should we make less money? These Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) should be practiced to improve the Software Engineering skills required for various interviews (campus interview, walk-in interview, company interview), placements, entrance exams and other competitive examinations. 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