He is remembered as being the leader and dictator of Rome during its most prosperous reign and Empire. He won his soldiers’ devotion by the victories that his intellectual ability, applied to warfare, brought them. There is no doubt of Caesar’s heterosexual affairs, many of them with married women. Julius Caesar conquered Gaul between 58 and 50 bce and invaded Britain in 55 or 54 bce, thereby bringing the island into close contact with the Roman world. Its effects were confined to the western end of the Old World and were comparatively short-lived by Chinese or ancient Egyptian standards. Caesar was a prominent politician, military general and leader in Rome, and had a profound impact on its history. Caesar substituted for the Roman oligarchy an autocracy that could never afterward be abolished. Yet he involved himself at least twice in escapades that might have wrecked his career. Caesar married Calpurnia, the daughter of a wealthy and powerful Populare senator, and married his daughter Julia to Pompey to further cement their arrangements. As a priest not only had to be of patrician stock, but married to a patrician, Caesar broke off his engagement to a plebian girl and married the patrician, Cornelia, daughter of a high profile and influential member of the Populares, Lucius Cinna. If he did in fact have an affair with Pompey’s wife, Mucia, he was risking his entente with Pompey. Caesar ranked as a masterly public speaker in an age in which he was in competition first with Hortensius and then with Cicero. Julius Caesar was born in Subura, Rome in the year 100 BC. Roman historian Suetonius, Julius Caesar spoke mainly Greek and not Latin, as was the case with most patricians at the time. Upon his release, however, Caesar made good on that threat. In this, too, he proved a success and became well known as an eloquent speaker. The general and dictator Julius Caesar helped to build ancient Rome into a mighty empire. Julius Caesar is a name synonymous with Rome. Caesar's Campaign against the Belgaeby US Military Academy (Public Domain). Ancient History Encyclopedia. To some the Roman citizenry was falling victim to moral decay. bce, Rome [Italy]—died March 15, 44 bce, Rome), celebrated Roman general and statesman, the conqueror of Gaul (58–50 bce), victor in the civil war of 49–45 bce, and dictator (46–44 bce), who was launching a series of political and social reforms when he was assassinated by a group of nobles in the Senate House on the Ides of March. Gaul, too, would have sunk deeper into barbarism when the Franks overran it, if it had not been associated with the civilized Mediterranean world for more than 500 years as a result of Caesar’s conquest. Caesar, however, named his grandnephew, Gaius Octavius Thurinus (Octavian) heir. A superb general and politician, Julius Caesar (c.100 BC – 44 BC / Reigned 46 – 44 BC) changed the course of Roman history. Cleopatra’s and Antony’s forces were defeated by Octavian at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE and they killed themselves a year later. Under the Roman Empire the Near East was impregnated with Hellenism for six or seven more centuries. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. He did, however, bring Cleopatra, their son, and her entourage, to Rome and set them up comfortably in a home which he visited frequently, despite the fact that he was already married to Calpurnia. Through a combination of political savvy, charisma and backhanded dealings, he … Returning to Rome with high honors, Caesar entered into a business/political agreement with Pompey and Crassus, in 60 BCE, dubbed The First Triumvirate by modern scholars and historians (though no one in ancient Rome used that term). At this time, Pharnaces, son of Mithridates, fomented rebellion in the east and Caesar rose to crush it.