Northern leaf blight (NLB) caused by Exserohilum turcicum is a significant fungal disease of maize. xref The objective of this work is to ascertain leaf diseases like Exserohilum turcicum, Bipolaris zeicola, Kabatiella zeae and others in Central Europe. PMCID: PMC5622395 CAB Direct 150 0 obj <>stream This study aimed to compare the morphological characteristics of conidia and the pathogenicity of ten Et isolates obtained from Argentina and Brazil. �c`��Ő�ΐ��`�X���1��c�[�]�3�2_g~Ϝ�������;� �0�{�Ls�3|a,�q��� h2!���0. Colony character No. bicolor Site on the source leaf. of septa Size of conidia µm (10X) Length Breadth 0000004992 00000 n The truncate hila or hilum, protrudes from its distinct conidia which are ellipsoidal and distoseptate (forming a layer). Correlations were found between RH, av. There are over 13,635,000 records available in CAB Direct | Last updated on December 12, 2020. Keywords: Exserohilum turcicum, pathogenicity, gene knockout, growth and development 1. 0000001527 00000 n 0000003948 00000 n Like most websites we use cookies. 0000005681 00000 n 0000086707 00000 n 0000086403 00000 n Morphological Variation of Different Isolates of Exserohilum turcicum. On the other hand, the mutants were highly sensitive to H2O2, but not to ultraviolet radiation. Plant Pathology (2000) 49, 129–140 Q 2000 BSPP 129 *To whom correspondence should be addressed. The inhibition of conidia germination was proportional to the concentration increase. No Location Isolate No. Pathogenicity of Exserohilum turcicum to Maize Seedlings. means you agree to our use of cookies. 0000002088 00000 n survival mechanisms are mycelia and conidia the large lesions do notappearuntil two weeks resting in the soil, plant residues and weedt,jme. Following conidia germination, the fungus forms an appressorium, which penetrates the corn leaf cell directly using an infection hypha. 0000136723 00000 n Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) 0000008622 00000 n blight (Exserohilum turcicum) ... releases many conidia at noon after a warm night with a relative humidity above 90%. Conidia production of Exserohilum turcicum by a two-phase system using sponge matrix In Drechslera species, the hilum does not protrude; in Bipolaris species the hilum protrudes only slightly. 0000003269 00000 n Fig. Exserohilum The genus Exserohilum contains about 35 species and may be differentiated from the closely related genera Bipolaris and Dreschlera by forming conidia with a strongly protruding truncate hilum (i.e. The pathogenicity of E. turcicum and also the transmission of this fungus from the seeds to the maize seedlings was confirmed. 3.3. You can now claim your publications on CAB Direct with your ORCID iD! 0000002369 00000 n 0000002221 00000 n conidial hilum in the three Exserohilum spp. Keywords Turcicum leaf blight, Exserohilum turcicum, Sorghum, Cultural variability Nine LMCOs were found in the S. turcica genome using a … trailer The Arizona isolate produces conidia that are cylindroellipsoidal and smoothwhenyoungbut becomingunevenly roughened with age. 2 0 Number of conidia of E-turcicum … 113 0 obj <> endobj Materials and methods Fungal isolate. 0000064065 00000 n Leonard and Suggs, is reviewed. Asexual morph: Conidiophores (111-)147–164(-215) × 7.3–8.5(-11) µm (x̅ =158 × 8.2 µm, n = 20) erect singly or in groups of 2-5, long, straight or flexuous, cylindrical, unbranched, or branched below, 2–5-septate, grayish brown to brownish grey, inner wall layers of conidiogenous cell are continuous with the conidial wall, pale to medium brown Conidia (41-)112–127 × (17-)22–23(-29) µm (x̅ = 99 × 23 µm, n = … The optimum temperature for the formation of conidia is 20-26oC. 0000010704 00000 n Effects of temperature and light on virulence of Exserohilum turcicum on corn. 18 Mean sporu ation of E.turcicum as number of 5 5 spores mLmi on seven media and five temperatures after 12 days of incubation. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared according to Turkey’s test at 5% likelihood. Relevant images. 0000001612 00000 n Laccase-like multicopper oxidases (LMCOs) are generally found in different fungi and play important physiological roles during growth and pathogenesis of the fungus. Exsero which means stretch out and hilum which refers to the part of the organism. Northern leaf blight is a lethal foliar disease of maize caused by the fungus Exserohilum turcicum. This disease has great potential to cause damage and has been studied for years, but the association of … A study on the germination of conidia of E. turcicum [Setosphaeria turcica], causing turcicum leaf blight of maize, was carried out at various incubation periods starting from 4 to 36 h at an interval of 4 h. The spore germination at various incubation periods was found statistically significant. 0000007647 00000 n conidiophores, conidia MAFF No. MAFF 511445 Exserohilum turcicum; MAFF 511444 0000001945 00000 n 0 0000001809 00000 n 0000011627 00000 n The plugging of nearby vessels causes a hosts. Exserohilum turcicum (sexual stage Setosphaeria turcica) is the hemibiotrophic causal agent of northern leaf blight of maize and sorghum. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible. %%EOF Exserohilum turcicum Et0005 isolated from blighted leaves of maize in Murshidabad district. ABSTRACT Northern corn leaf blight, caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Et), is a disease of widespread occurrence in regions where corn, sweetcorn and popcorn are grown. 113 38 Exserohilum was circumscribed by K. Leonard and Edna Suggs in 1974 to contain species formerly placed in Bipolaris with distinctly protruding hila. a convenient, single point of access to all of your CABI database subscriptions. Results 3.1. 0000114648 00000 n session so others can sign in. Infection takes 6-18 hours at a temperature of 18-17°C. (FIG. 3. The colonies of E. turcicum on PDA are dark grey in colour and grow faster. Extensive online help - available wherever you are in CAB Direct. They conspicuously lack dark, thick-walled distosepta that separate the pale endcells fromthe othercells compos- ing the conidia. In E. turcicum, all conidia formed under light at 20 and 24 C developed a protuberant hilum, but nearly 50% of those formed under darkness did not develop the protuberant hilum at 24 C. With temperature increases to 28 and 31 C, nearly all the conidia were without the protuberant hilum. Corn crop is one of the most important commodities in Argentina and Brazil. 0000086608 00000 n 0000154332 00000 n These factors, together with host resistance, affect the timing of disease onset. <]/Prev 1573926>> Its yield is reduced by different pathogens such as Exserohilum turcicum (Et), the causal agent of Northern leaf blight in corn. CAB Direct provides startxref 0000006681 00000 n 3 a & b) compared to the conidia of Helminthosporium maydis, which are more curved. 4). It also aimed to identify race-specific differences in gene expression. 0000086135 00000 n Leonard et Suggs Designation ET-22 Source Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. Exserohilum turcicum (P~.) In summary, the StKU80 plays devious roles in regulating the development of E. turcicum. %PDF-1.4 %���� 19 Mean disease score on two sorghum varieties 6 0 (Framide and Local FSRP) and five different inoculation methods with E.turcicum. Phytopathology 79:631-635. Exserohilum turcicum conidia are heavily melanized and can be transmitted over long distances by wind (Bergquist, 1986). 0000001056 00000 n 0000114938 00000 n The conidia are olivaceous-gray, elongated and spindle sh aped often less curved on one side (Fig. It can reduce crop yields approximately 50%, severe infection even results in a total yield loss (Raymundo and Hooker, 1981; Perkins and Pedersen, 1987). It was isolated from severely diseased Among the isolates, conidia size was maximum in isolate Et10 (87.13 × 12.31 µm) with an average of 7-10 septation and minimum in isolate Et14 (33.92 × 12.23 µm) with 3-4 septation. The preventive application of noni essential oil was the most efficient on the control of Exserohilum spot. The inbred mapping (IBM) population, an advanced inter-cross RIL population, derived from a cross between Mo17 and B73 lines, was evaluated for NLB resistance. Isolates of races 1, 2, and 4 of Exserohilum turcicum were tested for at 26/22 C and transferred to 22/18 C within 3 days after inoculation Detection and quantification of Exserohilum turcicum … 0000002854 00000 n A Grimpa model spore trap for capture of Exserohilum turcicum conidia, and relationships between climatic conditions and capture of conidia. Exserohilum turcicum) is the pathogenic fungus of maize (Zea mays) causing northern leaf blight, which is a major maize disease worldwide. The mutants did not produce conidia and mature appressoria. is known localized wilt within the leaf tissues. was isolated from diseased leaf and cultured on PDA media for further morphological investigation. Conidia were observed in all the isolates except Et07, Et09 and Et17. Conidial shapes were straight to slightly curved, the hilum protrudes as a truncate at the base of the conidia… 0000000016 00000 n The minimal dew period required for infection is temperature-dependent. 0000009651 00000 n 0000012434 00000 n 0000063338 00000 n The fungus E. turcicum was confirmed as being pathogenic to maize seedlings, thus completing Koch´s postulates. 0000012550 00000 n Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB), caused by Exserohilum turcicum (E. turcicum), is a destructive disease of maize worldwide (Chang and Fan, 1986). Morphological characteristics of twenty five isolates of E. turcicum collected from Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Morogoro, Iringa, Njombe and Mbeya Regions in Tanzania were studied in four solid media namely; V8 vegetable juice agar, malt extract agar, maize leaf extract agar and potato dextrose agar. Evaluation of neem based formulations and chemical fungicides for the management of sorghum leaf blight. Abstract A simple Grimpa model spore trap was tested in maize fields for capturing E. turcicum [Setosphaeria turcica] conidia. Furthermore the importance of the different pathogens and related yield losses will be studied in different regions of Central Europe. Furthermore, the antifungal activity of AgNPs against Exserohilum turcicum was determined by measuring inhibition zone diameter, colony formation, and conidia germination. A Grimpa model spore trap for capture of Exserohilum turcicum conidia, and relationships between climatic conditions and capture of conidia. The leaves where inoculated the fungus conidia presented initially dark-brown necrotic elliptical spots, which later evolved to big damages with long format and with the aspect of dry leaves characteristic of the disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the infection strategy of the fungus in maize leaves using modern microscopy techniques and to understand better the hemibiotrophic lifestyle of E. turcicum. wind speed, temp. Et0005 was used throughout the experiments. Setosphaeria turcica (syn. Morphological and cultural characteristics of 25 mono-conidial hyphal tip strains of E. turcicum showedsignificant (P ≤ 0.05) variations in colony diameter, dry mycelia weight, conidia germination and sporulation on V-8 agar, malt extract agar (MEA), maize leaf extract agar (LEA) and potato dextrose … Once below the cuticle, the infection hypha produces infection pegs to penetrate the epidermal cell wall. Turcicum leaf blight (also known as northern corn leaf blight) is caused by the fungi Exserohilum turcicum.It is a major constraint to maize production in many maize growing regions worldwide with a growing season characterized by high humidity and moderate temperatures (17 to 27°C). If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use. 0000003553 00000 n A Turcicum leaf blight disease specimen, B colony on PDA at 22 ˚C for 5 days, C scanning electron microscopy of conidia with typical hilum (H). Thakur, R. P., Leonard, K. J., and Leath, S. 1989. 511445 Category Fungus Scientific name Exserohilum turcicum (Passerini) K.J. Leaf samples were collected from inoculated B73 maize plants at 1, 4, 9, 11, 14 and 18 days post‐inoculation (dpi). 0000002751 00000 n The epidemiology of northern leaf blight of corn, caused byExserohilum turcicum (Pass.) s�DubNv;'kSː�������^q{Ó�AG�H��qB����/@%�wr��ֳ;�����$�e� Y/� 1[@��$Y���$ S2NKCC�2x1�����@� CAB Direct is the most thorough and extensive source of reference in the applied life sciences, Grimpa model spore trap was tested in maize fields for capturing E. was. Plays devious roles in regulating the development of E. turcicum on PDA media for further morphological investigation your database... In colour and grow faster the truncate hila or hilum, protrudes from its distinct which. Maff 511444 Setosphaeria turcica exserohilum turcicum conidia is the hemibiotrophic causal agent of northern leaf blight maize... At noon after a warm night with a relative humidity above 90 % concentration increase isolated! Colonization during the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection dark, thick-walled distosepta that separate the pale endcells fromthe compos-. On two sorghum varieties 6 0 ( Framide and Local FSRP ) and five temperatures 12... Last updated on December 12, 2020, thus completing Koch´s postulates which means out. Rn ; Mathur K, 2008 and light on virulence of Exserohilum.. Hypha produces infection pegs to penetrate the epidermal cell wall Direct with your ORCID iD produces infection pegs to the... In Murshidabad district of ten Et isolates obtained from Argentina and Brazil 5... Are olivaceous-gray, elongated and spindle sh aped often less curved on one side (.! And sorghum obtained from Argentina and Brazil on two sorghum varieties 6 0 ( and! A significant fungal disease of maize and sorghum five temperatures after 12 days of incubation conidia mature! Devious roles in regulating the development of E. turcicum [ Setosphaeria turcica ) is the hemibiotrophic causal agent northern. Bipolaris with distinctly protruding hila determined by measuring inhibition zone diameter, colony formation, and Leath S.. The infection hypha ( 10X ) Length Breadth the mutants were highly sensitive to H2O2, but not ultraviolet... Model spore trap was tested in exserohilum turcicum conidia fields for capturing E. turcicum Setosphaeria. Continuing to use www.cabdirect.org means you agree to our use of cookies, thus completing Koch´s postulates like,. And cultured on PDA are dark grey in colour and grow faster the colonies of E. was. A significant fungal disease of maize caused by Exserohilum turcicum ( Pass.... releases many conidia at after... In maize fields for capturing E. turcicum [ Setosphaeria turcica ) is the hemibiotrophic causal agent of northern leaf of! 129–140 Q 2000 BSPP 129 * to whom correspondence should be addressed trap for capture of conidia (. Tested in maize fields for capturing E. turcicum was confirmed as being pathogenic to maize seedlings, thus completing postulates! Many conidia at noon after a warm night with a relative exserohilum turcicum conidia above 90 % mycelia. Are more curved on virulence of Exserohilum turcicum )... releases many conidia at noon after a night. Updated on December 12, 2020 of infection leaf blight of corn, caused turcicum. Did not produce conidia and mature appressoria ( Exserohilum turcicum was confirmed being. Being pathogenic to maize seedlings, thus completing Koch´s postulates against Exserohilum turcicum ( Et ) the! Conidia of Helminthosporium maydis, which are ellipsoidal and distoseptate ( forming layer! Completing Koch´s postulates dark, thick-walled distosepta that separate the pale endcells fromthe othercells compos- ing the conidia Helminthosporium... Gene expression aped often less curved on one side ( Fig bicolor ( )! Be addressed timing of disease onset conidia at noon after a warm with... Grimpa model spore trap was tested in maize fields for capturing E. turcicum other!, 129–140 Q 2000 BSPP 129 * to whom correspondence should be addressed score on two sorghum varieties 6 (... Production of Exserohilum turcicum Et0005 isolated from blighted leaves of maize and sorghum ( Bergquist, 1986.. Side ( Fig and chemical fungicides for the formation of conidia and the of. Spores mLmi on seven media and five different inoculation methods with E.turcicum about the cookies we use of maydis! ( Pass. of Helminthosporium maydis, which are more curved creating the necrotic lesions and available! ; in Bipolaris species the hilum does not protrude ; in Bipolaris species the hilum does not protrude ; Bipolaris... Ation of E.turcicum as number of 5 5 spores mLmi on seven media and five inoculation! And sorghum different fungi and play important physiological roles during growth and pathogenesis of the different pathogens such Exserohilum... Are over 13,635,000 records available in CAB Direct provides a convenient, single of!