Conidia were observed in all the isolates except Et07, Et09 and Et17. 0000007647 00000 n 4). Morphological Variation of Different Isolates of Exserohilum turcicum. Exserohilum turcicum (P~.) 0000008622 00000 n 0000011627 00000 n Exserohilum turcicum Et0005 isolated from blighted leaves of maize in Murshidabad district. Northern leaf blight (NLB) caused by Exserohilum turcicum is a significant fungal disease of maize. Effects of temperature and light on virulence of Exserohilum turcicum on corn. A Turcicum leaf blight disease specimen, B colony on PDA at 22 ˚C for 5 days, C scanning electron microscopy of conidia with typical hilum (H). �c`��Ő�ΐ��`�X���1��c�[�]�3�2_g~Ϝ�������;� �0�{�Ls�3|a,�q��� h2!���0. %%EOF CAB Direct is the most thorough and extensive source of reference in the applied life sciences, The mutants did not produce conidia and mature appressoria. The plugging of nearby vessels causes a hosts. h�b```f``)e`c`�be@ Q�;G���&v8ʺ0D JŅ�X���%�z�`ښ��Z�˼&$lIrъ�٬�;Ǫ����l* Continuing to use www.cabdirect.org means you agree to our use of cookies. Furthermore, the antifungal activity of AgNPs against Exserohilum turcicum was determined by measuring inhibition zone diameter, colony formation, and conidia germination. Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) 0000005681 00000 n 0000001809 00000 n The truncate hila or hilum, protrudes from its distinct conidia which are ellipsoidal and distoseptate (forming a layer). conidial hilum in the three Exserohilum spp. Following conidia germination, the fungus forms an appressorium, which penetrates the corn leaf cell directly using an infection hypha. Exserohilum The genus Exserohilum contains about 35 species and may be differentiated from the closely related genera Bipolaris and Dreschlera by forming conidia with a strongly protruding truncate hilum (i.e. 2 0 Number of conidia of E-turcicum … Detection and quantification of Exserohilum turcicum … Extensive online help - available wherever you are in CAB Direct. 0000063054 00000 n Among the isolates, conidia size was maximum in isolate Et10 (87.13 × 12.31 µm) with an average of 7-10 septation and minimum in isolate Et14 (33.92 × 12.23 µm) with 3-4 septation. CAB Direct provides 0000086608 00000 n 0000001527 00000 n Relevant images. The fungus E. turcicum was confirmed as being pathogenic to maize seedlings, thus completing Koch´s postulates. There are over 13,635,000 records available in CAB Direct | Last updated on December 12, 2020. 0000001945 00000 n A Grimpa model spore trap for capture of Exserohilum turcicum conidia, and relationships between climatic conditions and capture of conidia. 0000002088 00000 n In Drechslera species, the hilum does not protrude; in Bipolaris species the hilum protrudes only slightly. This study aimed to compare the morphological characteristics of conidia and the pathogenicity of ten Et isolates obtained from Argentina and Brazil. The conidia are olivaceous-gray, elongated and spindle sh aped often less curved on one side (Fig. Keywords: Exserohilum turcicum, pathogenicity, gene knockout, growth and development 1. is known localized wilt within the leaf tissues. Find out more about this exciting new development, Using our new visualization tools you can, Using our new highlighting and annotation tool you can, remove selected records that are not saved in My CABI, sign you out of your incorporating the leading bibliographic databases CAB Abstracts and Global Health. The presence of Et conidiophores and conidia on the seed was assessed under a stereomicroscope at 50x magnification after 10 days of incubation. The Arizona isolate produces conidia that are cylindroellipsoidal and smoothwhenyoungbut becomingunevenly roughened with age. 0 Its yield is reduced by different pathogens such as Exserohilum turcicum (Et), the causal agent of Northern leaf blight in corn. 0000002221 00000 n 0000001056 00000 n Furthermore the importance of the different pathogens and related yield losses will be studied in different regions of Central Europe. 0000114648 00000 n Exserohilum was circumscribed by K. Leonard and Edna Suggs in 1974 to contain species formerly placed in Bipolaris with distinctly protruding hila. exserted hilum). Exserohilum turcicum conidia are heavily melanized and can be transmitted over long distances by wind (Bergquist, 1986). They conspicuously lack dark, thick-walled distosepta that separate the pale endcells fromthe othercells compos- ing the conidia. was isolated from diseased leaf and cultured on PDA media for further morphological investigation. Results 3.1. As known, this disease <]/Prev 1573926>> You can now claim your publications on CAB Direct with your ORCID iD! Infection takes 6-18 hours at a temperature of 18-17°C. 0000086403 00000 n 0000005398 00000 n Exserohilum turcicum) is the pathogenic fungus of maize (Zea mays) causing northern leaf blight, which is a major maize disease worldwide. trailer ABSTRACT Northern corn leaf blight, caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Et), is a disease of widespread occurrence in regions where corn, sweetcorn and popcorn are grown. 0000136723 00000 n Like most websites we use cookies. Keywords Turcicum leaf blight, Exserohilum turcicum, Sorghum, Cultural variability Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB), caused by Exserohilum turcicum (E. turcicum), is a destructive disease of maize worldwide (Chang and Fan, 1986). Northern leaf blight is a lethal foliar disease of maize caused by the fungus Exserohilum turcicum. In E. turcicum, all conidia formed under light at 20 and 24 C developed a protuberant hilum, but nearly 50% of those formed under darkness did not develop the protuberant hilum at 24 C. With temperature increases to 28 and 31 C, nearly all the conidia were without the protuberant hilum. 0000114938 00000 n 0000154332 00000 n 0000063338 00000 n 0000003948 00000 n Leonard and Suggs, is reviewed. conidiophores, conidia MAFF No. s�DubNv;'kSː�������^q{Ó�AG�H��qB����/@%�wr��ֳ;�����$�e� Y/� 1[@��$Y���$ S2NKCC�2x1�����@� wind speed, temp. Phytopathology 79:631-635. No Location Isolate No. The aim of this study was to elucidate the infection strategy of the fungus in maize leaves using modern microscopy techniques and to understand better the hemibiotrophic lifestyle of E. turcicum. 150 0 obj <>stream This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible. It can reduce crop yields approximately 50%, severe infection even results in a total yield loss (Raymundo and Hooker, 1981; Perkins and Pedersen, 1987). Pathogenicity of Exserohilum turcicum to Maize Seedlings. E. turcicum causes disease and reduces yield in corn primarily by creating the necrotic lesions and reducing available leaf area for photosynthesis. Laccase-like multicopper oxidases (LMCOs) are generally found in different fungi and play important physiological roles during growth and pathogenesis of the fungus. %PDF-1.4 %���� Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared according to Turkey’s test at 5% likelihood. The epidemiology of northern leaf blight of corn, caused byExserohilum turcicum (Pass.) In summary, the StKU80 plays devious roles in regulating the development of E. turcicum. Correlations were found between RH, av. 0000000016 00000 n Summa Phytopathologica, 19 (2):118-122 Bunker RN; Mathur K, 2008. 113 0 obj <> endobj A Grimpa model spore trap for capture of Exserohilum turcicum conidia, and relationships between climatic conditions and capture of conidia. bicolor Site on the source leaf. Nine LMCOs were found in the S. turcica genome using a … of septa Size of conidia µm (10X) Length Breadth The objective of this work is to ascertain leaf diseases like Exserohilum turcicum, Bipolaris zeicola, Kabatiella zeae and others in Central Europe. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2019) Special Issue-9: 209-213 212 Table.2 Morphological variations in different isolates of Exserohilum turcicum on PDA Sl. Leaf samples were collected from inoculated B73 maize plants at 1, 4, 9, 11, 14 and 18 days post‐inoculation (dpi). blight (Exserohilum turcicum) ... releases many conidia at noon after a warm night with a relative humidity above 90%. Abstract A simple Grimpa model spore trap was tested in maize fields for capturing E. turcicum [Setosphaeria turcica] conidia. 0000001612 00000 n During 0000002369 00000 n CAB Direct Fig. Conidial shapes were straight to slightly curved, the hilum protrudes as a truncate at the base of the conidia… 0000004992 00000 n The preventive application of noni essential oil was the most efficient on the control of Exserohilum spot. Setosphaeria turcica (syn. 0000002751 00000 n Plant Pathology (2000) 49, 129–140 Q 2000 BSPP 129 *To whom correspondence should be addressed. The minimal dew period required for infection is temperature-dependent. 0000009651 00000 n Isolates of races 1, 2, and 4 of Exserohilum turcicum were tested for at 26/22 C and transferred to 22/18 C within 3 days after inoculation 0000115353 00000 n 0000012550 00000 n This disease has great potential to cause damage and has been studied for years, but the association of … Exserohilum turcicum (sexual stage Setosphaeria turcica) is the hemibiotrophic causal agent of northern leaf blight of maize and sorghum. 3. session so others can sign in. On the other hand, the mutants were highly sensitive to H2O2, but not to ultraviolet radiation. PMCID: PMC5622395 It was isolated from severely diseased The inhibition of conidia germination was proportional to the concentration increase. Exsero which means stretch out and hilum which refers to the part of the organism. Asexual morph: Conidiophores (111-)147–164(-215) × 7.3–8.5(-11) µm (x̅ =158 × 8.2 µm, n = 20) erect singly or in groups of 2-5, long, straight or flexuous, cylindrical, unbranched, or branched below, 2–5-septate, grayish brown to brownish grey, inner wall layers of conidiogenous cell are continuous with the conidial wall, pale to medium brown Conidia (41-)112–127 × (17-)22–23(-29) µm (x̅ = 99 × 23 µm, n = … 19 Mean disease score on two sorghum varieties 6 0 (Framide and Local FSRP) and five different inoculation methods with E.turcicum. The optimum temperature for the formation of conidia is 20-26oC. startxref 511445 Category Fungus Scientific name Exserohilum turcicum (Passerini) K.J. Corn crop is one of the most important commodities in Argentina and Brazil. Once below the cuticle, the infection hypha produces infection pegs to penetrate the epidermal cell wall. The pathogenicity of E. turcicum and also the transmission of this fungus from the seeds to the maize seedlings was confirmed. 0000064065 00000 n 0000003269 00000 n a convenient, single point of access to all of your CABI database subscriptions. survival mechanisms are mycelia and conidia the large lesions do notappearuntil two weeks resting in the soil, plant residues and weedt,jme. Colony character No. 0000003553 00000 n Morphological characteristics of twenty five isolates of E. turcicum collected from Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Morogoro, Iringa, Njombe and Mbeya Regions in Tanzania were studied in four solid media namely; V8 vegetable juice agar, malt extract agar, maize leaf extract agar and potato dextrose agar. Turcicum leaf blight (also known as northern corn leaf blight) is caused by the fungi Exserohilum turcicum.It is a major constraint to maize production in many maize growing regions worldwide with a growing season characterized by high humidity and moderate temperatures (17 to 27°C). 0000086135 00000 n xref 3 a & b) compared to the conidia of Helminthosporium maydis, which are more curved. Leonard et Suggs Designation ET-22 Source Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. The leaves where inoculated the fungus conidia presented initially dark-brown necrotic elliptical spots, which later evolved to big damages with long format and with the aspect of dry leaves characteristic of the disease. (FIG. This study aimed to identify the genes involved in host colonization during the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection. 0000086707 00000 n Evaluation of neem based formulations and chemical fungicides for the management of sorghum leaf blight. 0000010704 00000 n 18 Mean sporu ation of E.turcicum as number of 5 5 spores mLmi on seven media and five temperatures after 12 days of incubation. These factors, together with host resistance, affect the timing of disease onset. 0000063976 00000 n If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use. A study on the germination of conidia of E. turcicum [Setosphaeria turcica], causing turcicum leaf blight of maize, was carried out at various incubation periods starting from 4 to 36 h at an interval of 4 h. The spore germination at various incubation periods was found statistically significant. 0000002854 00000 n Materials and methods Fungal isolate. MAFF 511445 Exserohilum turcicum; MAFF 511444 113 38 Morphological and cultural characteristics of 25 mono-conidial hyphal tip strains of E. turcicum showedsignificant (P ≤ 0.05) variations in colony diameter, dry mycelia weight, conidia germination and sporulation on V-8 agar, malt extract agar (MEA), maize leaf extract agar (LEA) and potato dextrose … 0000012434 00000 n 3.3. The inbred mapping (IBM) population, an advanced inter-cross RIL population, derived from a cross between Mo17 and B73 lines, was evaluated for NLB resistance. Et0005 was used throughout the experiments. Thakur, R. P., Leonard, K. J., and Leath, S. 1989. It also aimed to identify race-specific differences in gene expression. Conidia production of Exserohilum turcicum by a two-phase system using sponge matrix 0000006681 00000 n The colonies of E. turcicum on PDA are dark grey in colour and grow faster.
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