Image credit: Anang Dianto (photographer). Specifically, nightlights in cells in storm surge-prone areas that experience category 3 hurricane winds (f=0.2) are reduced by 0.88 units or 17%. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. Each composite covers Central America and contains information on 604,473 1-km2 grid cells. Despite all these benefits, mangroves tend to be undervalued. Recent work in ref. Author contributions: A.d.V. Data on the distribution of mangroves come from 2 sources. To rule out that any protection benefits of the mangrove are derived because mangroves grow in areas that are naturally more sheltered (for example, areas that lay in a steeper continental shelf), we begin by excluding from the analysis areas that have not historically supported mangrove habitats. Total Economic Values of Mangroves 25 Table 2.2. This model uses an asymmetric Holland equation that has been calibrated for Central America. 2, 225–235 (2018), The short-term economic impact of tropical cyclone pam: An analysis using VIIRS nightlight satellite imagery, The local impact of typhoons on economic activity in China: A view from outer space, Weathering storms: Understanding the impact of natural disasters in Central America, International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Mangroves as a coastal protection from waves in the Tong King delta, Vietnam, Non-linearity in ecosystem services: Temporal and spatial variability in coastal protection. Using these data, we estimate the impact of hurricanes on economic activity under the assumption that hurricane strikes are exogenous conditional on cell and year fixed effects. The average value of nightlights in 2000 is 5.1, with an SD of 8.4. Second, while climate change and the resulting intensification of storms may increase the value of conservation for protection purposes, areas designated for conservation or restoration must be carefully chosen given the threat of sea-level rise (46). 5 and calculate the width of mangrove, as measured in 2000, along the closest path to the coast. Mangroves are used in flavouring agents, textiles, mats, paper, housing, baskets, boats and tapa cloth and also used as staple food In Malaysia, where mangroves occur in profusion, an important cottage industry is the manufacture of shingles for roof thatching from the fronds of Nypa fruticans. Taken at face value, the difference between these coefficients indicates that the reduction in damage from mangroves roughly corresponds to 5.6 nightlight units. 2A, model 1 (q = 2), the bins correspond to cells with above- and below-median mangrove width on their path to the coast (0.63 km). We study the effectiveness of mangrove defenses by testing whether the impact of hurricanes on nightlights decreases as the level of mangrove protection increases. Other products that can be harvested from swamps include fuelwood, salt, animal fodder, dyes, tannins, etc. It's an intriguing new hypothesis that has started to garner attention as researchers continue to debate the merits of multiple models. We focus on Central America because hurricanes occur frequently; because its coastline is highly exposed to storm surge (1), which is one of the most damaging features of hurricanes; and because coastal areas have historically sustained mangrove forests (27) capable of providing protection. and M.E. Our results fall into 2 categories. In addition to modeling hurricane strength, our approach also extends previous efforts by flexibly estimating the heterogeneous impact of hurricanes across levels of mangrove width. In many parts of Indonesia, the social economic values for mangrove ecosystem are varied depending on … The results show that hurricanes have negative short-run effects on economic activity, with losses likely concentrated in coastal lowlands that are exposed to both wind and storm surge hazards. Mangrove Ecosystem Services and Valuation Methods As noted above, mangroves provide a wide range of vital ecosystem services, which have an equally wide range of value. With their dense network of roots and … Estimates of Direct Use Value of the Mangrove by the Locals 27 Table 2.6. 25 has a discussion of aggregation bias). By comparison, the effect in above-median areas (with an average of 1.6-km mangrove width) is small and statistically indistinguishable from 0. 2C plots distance to the coast for each model and bin. 34. Economic values. For each of these cells, we additionally calculate the shortest path (Euclidean distance) from the centroid of the cell to the coast. The estimated coefficients highlight that the benefits of mangrove protection occur among cells with 1 km or more of mangrove width in their path to the coast. Next, for each of the remaining cells, we calculate mangrove width in 2 steps. Tree density of the major species in the Tha Po Village mangrove forest 26 Table 2.4. We then explore using a binning estimator whether there is a negative and plausibly nonlinear relationship between mangroves and hurricane damages. In the first 3 models, we discretize the mangrove width variable into various bins that correspond to its q quantiles and estimate the impact of hurricanes on economic activity for each bin: model 1 uses q = 2 and is labeled with stars, model 2 uses q = 3 and is labeled with squares, and model 3 uses q = 4 and is labeled with triangles. 2. Specifically, in terms of density, mangroves near the equator are characterized by dense aboveground biomass and by less pronounced seasonal variation in their density (29). Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The first is a collection of harmonized maps, 1960 to 1996, that was assembled for the World Mangrove Atlas (27). Value is determined in these markets through exchange and quantified in terms of price. 18 suggests that mangroves can provide protection to coastal communities, but the extent to which mangroves can alter the relationship between cyclone strength and economic damages is still unknown. These composites predominantly measure human-made lights because they only use information from cloud-free days and because NOAA’s methodology filters transient sources of light (ref. By protecting mangroves, we can help protect the future of our planet. Mangrove forests have received considerable attention because their aerial root and canopy structure makes them capable of reducing wave action (8⇓⇓–11), wind velocity (12), and storm surge (13⇓⇓–16). We thank Eric Strobl for providing boundaries for global coastal lowlands constructed from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data and for helpful comments. We then take the resulting variables and include them in Eq. Coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds protect communities from storms, and are critical for the sustainability of many economic activities, jobs, and inclusive growth. 2A, model 2 (q = 3) and model 3 (q = 4) show the same decreasing pattern of hurricane damage, with full mitigation of damages taking place in the last bin: that is, for model 2, the third tercile (mangrove width greater than 1 km and average width of 2 km) and for model 3, the fourth quartile (mangrove width greater than 1.26 km and average width of 2.3 km). Mangroves have always been economically important to man and have provided us with food and all manner of products for thousands of years. The term ‘mangrove’ also applies to thickets and forests of such plants. This work was funded by World Bank’s Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery Program Trust Fund TF018258. We add to this literature by providing empirical estimates of how mangroves moderate the relationship between hurricane strength and local economic damages. Our measure of mangrove protection for each cell is the width of mangrove in 2000 along the shortest path to the coast. Because past literature has argued that there may be a nonlinear relationship between mangrove width and the observed reduction in storm surge (29), we begin exploring the heterogeneity of hurricane impact by estimating 3 different models. Natural Disaster Hotspots: A Global Risk Analysis, The impact of climate change on global tropical cyclone damage, Global warming effects on us hurricane damage, Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone, Ecosystem-based coastal defence in the face of global change, The role of nature-based infrastructure (NBI) in coastal resiliency planning: A literature review, Surface wave propagation in mangrove forests, Wave reduction in a mangrove forest dominated by, Coastal ecosystem-based management with nonlinear ecological functions and values, Wave attenuation in mangroves: A quantitative approach to field observations, Mangroves can provide protection against wind damage during storms, Water level observations in mangrove swamps during two hurricanes in Florida, The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services, The role of mangroves in attenuating storm surges, Numerical study of the sensitivity of mangroves in reducing storm surge and flooding to hurricane characteristics in southern Florida. Intuitively, because mangrove forests act as barriers to obstruct flow and buffer winds, protection is expected to increase with their density and width (28). This transformation imposes a threshold below which damage is unlikely to occur, it guarantees that damage will approach unity for very high wind speeds, and it accounts for the physical property that wind power (the rate of increase of kinetic energy) from a hurricane is proportional to the third power of wind speed. Despite increasing awareness regarding value and importance, the destruction of mangrove forest continues to take place in many parts of the world under a variety of economic as-well-as political motives. ↵§The 2 to 7 km range is derived by assuming that the height of storm surge for these categories of hurricanes is between 1.2 and 3.6 m (45), and that storm surge is reduced by 50 cm per km of mangrove width, as estimated by (15) for the Florida Gulf Coast. Mangroves are utilized in many parts of the world as a renewable resource. Next, Fig. We then explore the heterogeneity in the impact of hurricanes by interacting our damage index with the predetermined width of mangrove on the path to the coast. This result implies a recovery to trend and is in line with previous literature, which has highlighted that the negative effect of hurricanes on economic activity is relatively short lived (20⇓⇓⇓⇓–25, 35⇓⇓–38). In Fig. These include services for many industries and activities. Our findings contribute to the literature on the storm-protective services of mangroves (ref. 11 of some 70 mangrove species are at risk of becoming extinct. More than 1.4 billion people live in coastal areas at risk for tropical cyclones (1). This paper evaluates whether mangroves can mitigate the impact of hurricanes on economic activity. An example of the usefulness of ESEV is the economic valuation of mangrove forests in India, which has shown a significant rise in mangrove cover in the State of Gujarat post-1993 that is attributed to mangrove plantation or regeneration activities in the state (Sahu et al., 2015, FSI, 2011). The estimated coefficient of −5.96 indicates that, when a cell experiences, for example, category 3 hurricane winds (f = 0.2), nightlights decrease by ≈1.2 units (−5.96×0.2) or a 23% reduction. Within the coastal lowlands, we further show that the impact of hurricanes declines with mangrove width and specifically, that the effect of hurricanes in our sample is entirely mitigated by 1 km or more of mangrove width. Usually the mangrove belt is passed by as dreary, uninter-esting, and mosquito-infested by the tropical traveler, but to the botanically inclined, or even to the seeker of beauty, this region well repays closer acquaintance. We convert wind speed into potential damage using the transformation and parameters proposed in ref. Disasters Clim. We additionally document a 17% reduction in economic activity for coastal lowlands, which are at risk from both wind and storm surge damage. The paper assembles a regionwide panel dataset that measures local economic activity using nightlights, potential hurricane damages using a detailed wind field model, and mangrove protection by mapping the width of mangrove forests on the path to the coast. ↵‡Upper-range hurricane wind speeds of category 1 (f = 0.03, wind speed 153 km/h) or 2 (f = 0.09, wind speed 177 km/h) would decrease nightlights by 0.12 and 0.37, respectively. Proportion of mangroves protected in the ten largest countries having mangroves. Feeding and nursery ground for fisheries Mangroves play a very important role as habitat, nursery and a source of food for both commercial fishery species and other marine fauna. Specifically, the estimated f coefficient is statistically significant and nearly identical to that of column 1 in Table 1, while the lagged coefficient is small and statistically indistinguishable from 0. Direct use values … Last, in column 3 in Table 1, we estimate the impact of hurricanes in storm and nonstorm surge-prone areas. Certain tree species, notably the cedar mangrove, cannonball mangrove (relatives of the red cedar) and the grey mangrove, are prized for their hard. 2A, model 4, we summarize these findings, estimating the impact of hurricanes on nightlights for 3 groups of mangrove width: 0 to 1, 1 to 2, and 2 km or more. Eq. First, we identify the line segments along the shortest path to the coast that overlap mangrove forests as defined by ref. For the first model (q = 2), we create a dummy variable for each bin and interact these variables with the f damage index. These economic activities appear to promote economic growth but in turn cause loss in terms of coastal and marine resources IMPORTANCE OF MANGROVES FOR MUMBAI Mumbai is a reclaimed island along its entire shoreline. Mangroves protect coastal areas from erosion, storm surge, and tsunamis. 2B plots the distribution of mangrove width for each bin, the box represents the interquartile range, the whiskers are the minimum and the maximum, and the dot is the average value. endobj I>g,al 7 ` 6 l @Z a d ~ c d "/w n= c`7_ ā잓 | f The economic importance of mangroves in Pakistan comes from the fi­shery resource they harbour, as an estimated 80 percent of the ­fish caught in coastal waters spend at least part of their life cycle in the mangrove creeks or depend on the mangroves for their food. The green line segments represent mangrove on the path to the coast. Our results are important for policy makers because they highlight that mangrove conservation and restoration efforts can be used in coastal lowlands to protect economic activity against tropical cyclones. In years with overlapping satellite coverage, we aggregate nightlights by taking cell-level weighted averages across satellites, where the weights are given by the number of cloud-free days. economic importance, except that some of the trees are occa-sionally used for timber, as in Sonneratia on Kusaie. Approximately a quarter of the cells in our sample experience non-0 wind speed. 34. How effective were mangroves as a defence against the recent tsunami? Many common mangrove tree species, e.g., Rhizophoraspecies produce wood that is dense, hard and often rich in tannins (FAO, 1994, Bandaranayake, 1998). Commercial uses of mangroves • Mangroves provide timber and fuelwood. One important observation from this analysis, however, is that the benefit of protection is only accrued from wide mangrove belts. analyzed data; O.A.I. Total Economic Value (TEV) of these resources was required for economically Our findings indicate that mangroves exhibit decreasing returns to scale, that GDP per capita has a positive effect on mangrove values and that using the replacement cost and contingent valuation methods produce higher estimates than do other methods. 1 provides a visual representation of the mangrove width calculation in the coast where the largest event in our sample made landfall (Hurricane Felix). As before, we additionally test and are able, in both cases, to reject the null hypotheses of equality between the last bin and the previous bin (P value <0.001). The two most widespread uses of mangrove wood are for fuel and construction. The data and code used in this paper can be found in the open Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research repository. While certain areas of Central America may have a greater historical incidence of hurricanes (for example, leading to investment in damage prevention), we account for this possibility by including cell fixed effects. Moreover, we also provide supporting evidence against topographic features driving our results by showing that estimates of mangrove protection are unchanged when we rely on within-municipal variation, where coastline features are likely to be similar. We use this map to identify areas that have historically supported mangrove habitats. Consequently, an important avenue for future research is the identification of areas that should be prioritized for conservation or restoration. and J.J.M. To ensure that the effect is driven by the mangrove vegetation itself and not by other characteristics of the location of mangrove habitats, we further restrict our sample to cells that have been historically protected by mangrove habitats. Some of these outputs, such as timber, are freely exchanged in formal markets. Feeding and nursery ground for fisheries Mangroves play a very important role as habitat, nursery and a source of food for both commercial fishery species and other marine fauna. Direct use values refer to consumptive and non-consumptive uses that entail direct physical interaction with the mangroves and their services [ 34 ] such as outputs of fish, fuel wood, recreation, and transport. Mangroves as bioshield: An undisputable fact, Earthscan with International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, The Nature Conservancy, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organisation, United Nations University, The view from above: Applications of satellite data in economics, “Windstorm hazard model for disaster risk assessment in Central America”, Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Wind Engineering, Naturally negative: The growth effects of natural disasters, Economic development and natural disasters: A satellite data analysis, The long-term consequences of disasters: What do we know, and what we still don’t, Catastrophic natural disasters and economic growth, The protective service of mangrove ecosystems: A review of valuation methods. 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Live in coastal areas from erosion, storm surge, tannins, etc counterfactual calculation marketed natural from... Providing boundaries for Global coastal lowlands constructed from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data and code used in houses. Ols Nighttime lights time Series ( Version 4, 2016 ) effective were mangroves as habitats for! Speed from the wind field model of ref fodder for cattle measured 2000.
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