18 suggests that mangroves can provide protection to coastal communities, but the extent to which mangroves can alter the relationship between cyclone strength and economic damages is still unknown. non-consumptive uses that entail direct physical interaction with the mangroves and their services such as outputs of fish, fuel wood, recreation, and transport. In addition to modeling hurricane strength, our approach also extends previous efforts by flexibly estimating the heterogeneous impact of hurricanes across levels of mangrove width. An example of the usefulness of ESEV is the economic valuation of mangrove forests in India, which has shown a significant rise in mangrove cover in the State of Gujarat post-1993 that is attributed to mangrove plantation or regeneration activities in the state (Sahu et al., 2015, FSI, 2011). In terms of habitat use, the mangrove support to commercial, recreational and subsistence fisheries is well documented (see review … We additionally test and confirm that the effect of hurricanes is differential between the groups (P value <0.001). 22; ref. Fig. Chang. We use a less stringent definition because Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation estimates below 10 m are not considered reliable (43). for the Matang mangrove forest, timber … 3. On the whole, the previous models indicate that cells with 1 km or more of mangrove width along their path to the coast suffer considerably less damage from hurricanes. Changing environmental conditions and genetic adaptations may explain how penguins radiated and expanded their geographic ranges to encompass diverse environments. Their leaves and branches can be used as fodder for cattle. While interventions, such as early warning systems, may be cost effective in terms of saving lives (5), coastal defense interventions to protect assets and prevent disruptions to economic activity tend to be expensive to construct and maintain (e.g., seawalls or embankments) and can have adverse ecological side effects (6). 2C plots distance to the coast for each model and bin. Total Economic Values of Mangroves 25 Table 2.2. The direct use value of mangrove ecosystem has been tapped for wood, charcoal, tannin, construction material, household equipment, medicines, fish, shrimp, crab, vegetable and raw material for pulp and paper industries. 12813), The rising tide: Assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones, Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data (Version 1.3, updated by UNEP-WCMC), Mangroves as protection from storm surges in a changing climate, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, https://www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1911617116/-/DCSupplemental, https://ngdc.noaa.gov/eog/dmsp/downloadV4composites.html, Inner Workings: RNA-based pesticides aim to get around resistance problems, Inner Workings: Early Mars may have boasted a large ocean and cool climate, US racial inequality: A pandemic-scale problem. 18 suggests that mangroves can provide protection to coastal communities, but the extent to which mangroves can alter the relationship between cyclone strength and economic damages is still unknown. Coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds protect communities from storms, and are critical for the sustainability of many economic activities, jobs, and inclusive growth. To estimate whether mangroves can reduce hurricane damage, we divide Central America into 1-km2 grid cells and construct a cell–year panel for the 2000 to 2013 period. The figure reveals that, while there are many observations with low values of mangrove width at long distances from the coast, it is still the case that on average a longer mangrove width also implies a longer distance to the coast. Specifically, in terms of density, mangroves near the equator are characterized by dense aboveground biomass and by less pronounced seasonal variation in their density (29). Direct use values refer to consumptive and non-consumptive uses that entail direct physical interaction with the mangroves and their services [ 34 ] such as outputs of fish, fuel wood, recreation, and transport. 42. The increasing losses from tropical cyclones in developing countries highlight the importance of understanding how natural habitats can be used to protect assets and economic activity against this hazard. 1 provides a visual representation of the mangrove width calculation in the coast where the largest event in our sample made landfall (Hurricane Felix). Eq. The second set of results shows that the impact of hurricanes in these storm surge-prone areas decreases as the width of mangrove increases. It is more economical to conserve than to restore mangroves (Webber et al. Mangroves shelter coastal economic activity from cyclones, Temperatures and cyclones strongly associated with economic production in the Caribbean and Central America, The economic growth impact of natural disasters in developing countries: Evidence from hurricane strikes in the Central American and Caribbean regions, The economic growth impact of hurricanes: Evidence from US coastal counties, Quantifying the local economic growth impact of hurricane strikes: An analysis from outer space for the Caribbean, The short-term economic impact of tropical cyclones: Satellite evidence from Guangdong province. Other products that can be harvested from swamps include fuelwood, salt, animal fodder, dyes, tannins, etc. We repeat this procedure using q = 3 and q = 4. Moreover, the dense stilt root systems of the Rhizophora spp., which is commonly found in Central America, have been shown to be effective at dissipating wave energy (11, 15) and withstanding storms (30, 31). Gross Returns of the Major Products of the Mangrove Collected by the Locals 26 Table 2.5. 2A, model 1 (q = 2), the bins correspond to cells with above- and below-median mangrove width on their path to the coast (0.63 km). The paper assembles a regionwide panel dataset that measures local economic activity using nightlights, potential hurricane damages using a detailed wind field model, and mangrove protection by mapping the width of mangrove forests on the path to the coast. Demands on mangroves to satisfy social and economic needs have not been great in Japan, but the mangroves in the Ryukyu Islands form an unusual landscape which each year attracts many Japanese tourists to the area (figs. The Economics of Mangrove Forest Use • Mangrove forest is a renewable resource. All errors and opinions are our own. We then take the resulting variables and include them in Eq. In many parts of Indonesia, the social economic values for mangrove ecosystem are varied depending on … Mangroves are highly productive ecosystem with various important social, economic and environmental functions. ↵†We exclude the year 2000 from our sample to interpret mangrove width in 2000 as a predetermined covariate in the next section. This article contains supporting information online at https://www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1911617116/-/DCSupplemental. We also thank Kyle Emerick, Seema Jayachandran, Robert Mendelsohn, and the seminar participants at the Southern Economic Association 88th Annual Meetings and the 26th Ulvön Conference on Environmental Economics for many useful comments and suggestions. The uses of mangroves are many and varied. We find that hurricanes lead to significant losses in economic activity in the short run and that wide mangrove belts are capable of mitigating these losses. Mangroves in Central America may be particularly well suited for providing protection. 25 has a discussion of aggregation bias). These include services for many industries and activities. As before, we additionally test and are able, in both cases, to reject the null hypotheses of equality between the last bin and the previous bin (P value <0.001). Last, SI Appendix, section SI4 shows that the result from our preferred specification (model 4 of Fig. Mangrove Ecosystem Services and Valuation Methods As noted above, mangroves provide a wide range of vital ecosystem services, which have an equally wide range of value. Our findings contribute to the literature on the storm-protective services of mangroves (ref. B plots the distribution of mangrove width for each bin, and C plots the distribution of distance to the coast for each bin. Recently, however, many planners and bureaucrats have tended to view mangroves as eyesores and 'waste-land'. Economic valuation of mangroves as a conservation tool Given the dramatic losses of mangroves, there is a need to understand the implications of Figure 1. People should pursue an adequate balance between natural and economic uses so mangrove forests can be maintained over time. This finding is broadly consistent with other estimates of mangrove protection, which indicate that 2 to 7 km of mangrove width would be needed to fully attenuate storm surge for the hurricanes that make up the bulk of our sample (categories 1 to 3).§ Moreover, our estimates suggest that this effect is economically relevant. This model uses an asymmetric Holland equation that has been calibrated for Central America. Distribution of mangrove in the North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region, Nicaragua. Mangroves protect coastal economic activity from hurricanes. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. A simple counterfactual simulation for coastal Nicaragua reveals that avoided losses from protection by mangroves account for up to 2.5% of the economic activity observed in Nicaragua’s coast in 2000. Mangrove forests are sometimes used as nursery areas by flying foxes in the Darwin Harbour and other areas of Australia. Second, while climate change and the resulting intensification of storms may increase the value of conservation for protection purposes, areas designated for conservation or restoration must be carefully chosen given the threat of sea-level rise (46). Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on PNAS. Mangrove forests provide nature experiences for people such as birding, fishing, snorkeling, kayaking, paddle boarding, and the therapeutic calm and relaxation that comes from enjoying peaceful time in nature. The establishment of protected areas is a main policy tool to conserve mangrove forests and their services and benefits, and to prevent further mangrove loss. WRI and its local partners have conducted economic valuation studies of coral reefs and mangroves at national and M.E. 34. The first set of results shows that, consistent with previous literature, hurricanes have negative short-run effects on economic activity (20⇓⇓⇓⇓–25, 35⇓⇓–38). Mangroves protect coral reefs from sedimentation, sequester massive amounts of carbon to combat climate change, adapt to rising sea levels, serve as nurseries in a vital food source for marine life while providing critical habitat for endangered species. Approximately a quarter of the cells in our sample experience non-0 wind speed. The results show that hurricanes have negative short-run effects on economic activity, with losses likely concentrated in coastal lowlands that are exposed to both wind and storm surge hazards. The estimated reduction in damages from mangroves is of a similar magnitude to that found in model 1. 15. Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), natural barriers protecting coastal communities, sequester carbon at a rate two to four times greater, Mangroves: Super Forests We Must Protect - Blue Ocean Network, Messages from the Mangroves: Kayaking in Goa's Backwaters | Soul Travel, How to Help West Bengali after Cyclone Amphan? mangroves in developing countries, it is crucial that the uses and values of mangroves to local communities especially the fisherfolk are identified and estimated through proper economic valuation of mangroves as fish habitats. In each model, we discretize mangrove width into various bins that correspond to its q quantiles. analyzed data; O.A.I. In the United States, mortality rates and life expectancy were worse for Blacks during nonpandemic years than for Whites during the COVID-19 pandemic, a study finds. Niger. Next, in column 2 in Table 1, we investigate whether hurricanes have lasting effects on economic activity by introducing a lag of the fit damage index but find no evidence of effects beyond the year the hurricane occurs. Commercial uses of mangroves • Mangroves provide timber and fuelwood. Economists generally decompose the total economic value of ecosystems into direct use, indirect use and non-use values. Fig. Mangroves are used in flavouring agents, textiles, mats, paper, housing, baskets, boats and tapa cloth and also used as staple food In Malaysia, where mangroves occur in profusion, an important cottage industry is the manufacture of shingles for roof thatching from the fronds of Nypa fruticans. To rule out that any protection benefits of the mangrove are derived because mangroves grow in areas that are naturally more sheltered (for example, areas that lay in a steeper continental shelf), we begin by excluding from the analysis areas that have not historically supported mangrove habitats. It's an intriguing new hypothesis that has started to garner attention as researchers continue to debate the merits of multiple models. This article is a PNAS Direct Submission. coastal land use and development. The f damage index provides an informative measure of wind damages and potentially, of overall damages because it is also correlated with damage from excess rainfall and storm surge. Tree density of the major species in the Tha Po Village mangrove forest 26 Table 2.4. Uses of Mangroves in Japan. Mangrove forests have received considerable attention because their aerial root and canopy structure makes them capable of reducing wave action (8⇓⇓–11), wind velocity (12), and storm surge (13⇓⇓–16). With their dense network of roots and … Delta, Nigeria. The average distance to the coast is 5.41 km. The estimated effect size suggests that a category 3 hurricane in the Saffir–Simpson scale can reduce our proxy of economic activity by 16%. To measure the distribution of surface winds from hurricanes in Central America during our sample period, we use the wind field model developed in ref. The resulting coefficients can be interpreted as the effect of hurricanes on nightlights for each of these areas. Our results are important for policy makers because they highlight that mangrove conservation and restoration efforts can be used in coastal lowlands to protect economic activity against tropical cyclones. Image credit: Aurora Fernández Durán (photographer). * This storm surge-prone area is composed of 7,758 cells (3.6% of all cells). Direct use values refer to consumptive and non-consumptive uses that entail direct physical interaction with the mangroves and their services [ 34 ] such as outputs of fish, fuel wood, recreation, and transport. 2) is robust. 2005). We use this map to identify areas that have historically supported mangrove habitats. We convert wind speed into potential damage using the transformation and parameters proposed in ref. In this paper, we show that wide mangrove belts in Central America have the potential to mitigate the disruption to economic activity generated by hurricanes. Disasters Clim. First, we identify the line segments along the shortest path to the coast that overlap mangrove forests as defined by ref. The authors declare no competing interest. The Red Mangrove is also used for fuel wood but its most common and important use is in the leather industry as its bark is peeled and tannin is extracted, which is used as a dye. Accordingly, we conclude that in our sample, where 95% of observations are within 18 km of the coastline, the reduction in hurricane impact is not driven by distance to the coast but rather, by the protection provided by the mangrove. The damage index f is given byfit=max(Vit−VT,0)VH−VT31+max(Vit−VT,0)VH−VT3,[1]where Vit represents wind speed in cell i and year t, VT is the threshold below which damage is unlikely to occur (it is set at 92.6 km/h [50 knots]), and VH is the wind speed at which half of all structures are expected to be destroyed, 277.8 km/h (150 knots). and J.J.M. Using these data, we estimate the impact of hurricanes on economic activity under the assumption that hurricane strikes are exogenous conditional on cell and year fixed effects. 2B plots the distribution of mangrove width for each bin, the box represents the interquartile range, the whiskers are the minimum and the maximum, and the dot is the average value. In other parts of the world, people have utilized mangrove trees as a renewable resource. Genetic insights could help shore up populations of a rare dog species thought to be nearly extinct in the wild. Harvested for durable, water-resistant wood, mangroves have been used in building houses, boats, pilings, and furniture. The most affected cells in our sample experience an f of 0.23; the average f among impacted cells is 0.004. The model is calibrated for Central America, has been validated with historical data, and provides wind speed at the same spatial resolution as the nightlights data. In Fig. Usually the mangrove belt is passed by as dreary, uninter-esting, and mosquito-infested by the tropical traveler, but to the botanically inclined, or even to the seeker of beauty, this region well repays closer acquaintance. Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. Specifically, while category 3 hurricane winds (f = 0.2) would lead to a 24% decrease in economic activity in cells with less than 1 km of mangrove width, cells with more than 1 km of mangrove width would experience no damage. To match the wind speed dataset to our nightlight data, we construct a cell–year panel that uses only observations from the hurricane with the highest recorded wind speed during a given year. ↵*Ref. We measure potential hurricane damages using predicted wind speed from the wind field model of ref. The resulting cell–year panel is composed of 212,072 cells, which we observe for 13 y. Next, Fig. Specifically, we create a coastal lowland indicator variable identifying contiguous areas along the coast that are less than 10 m above sea level. Mangrovs provide clean water, nurseries for fish, and protection from predators. A plots point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for 4 models. Specifically, we use remote sensing data on nightlights to measure local economic activity. economic value of mangroves as a case study, and suggest policy measures … As of 2005, approximately 19% of mangroves were within protected areas (Chape et al. Table 1 shows, consistent with previous literature, that hurricanes have considerable short-run negative effects on local economic activity. and M.E. We find that in our sample the average mangrove width is 0.9 km, with a minimum of 0 km and a maximum of 10.11 km. To show that these findings are not driven by a mechanical relationship between mangrove width and distance to the coast, we additionally show that, in coastal lowlands, the impact of hurricanes does not decrease with distance to the coast in the absence of wide mangrove belts. 2A, model 4, we summarize these findings, estimating the impact of hurricanes on nightlights for 3 groups of mangrove width: 0 to 1, 1 to 2, and 2 km or more. 3. In years with overlapping satellite coverage, we aggregate nightlights by taking cell-level weighted averages across satellites, where the weights are given by the number of cloud-free days. The explosive growth of shrimp farming, urban expansion, climate change and other aspects of economic development reduced mangrove forests by as much as 35% between 1980 and 2000. Source: USGS Global Distribution of Mangroves (2011), cited in UNEP (2014). Specifically, the estimated f coefficient is statistically significant and nearly identical to that of column 1 in Table 1, while the lagged coefficient is small and statistically indistinguishable from 0. Recent work in ref. S. Nasser, Socio-Economic and Ecological Study of Mangrove Forest Management in Zanzibar, Tanzania. 33 has a literature review), including the downturns generated by hurricanes (22⇓⇓–25). ↵‡Upper-range hurricane wind speeds of category 1 (f = 0.03, wind speed 153 km/h) or 2 (f = 0.09, wind speed 177 km/h) would decrease nightlights by 0.12 and 0.37, respectively. We thank Eric Strobl for providing boundaries for global coastal lowlands constructed from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data and for helpful comments. These models allow our estimates of the impact of hurricanes to vary freely across bins and hence, are able to accommodate any nonlinear pattern describing the heterogeneous impact of hurricanes across levels of mangrove width. Last, our findings also contribute to the literature on the impact of cyclones on economic activity (19⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓–26, 35⇓⇓–38) by providing additional empirical evidence in favor of hurricanes having short-run negative consequences in Central America. This paper evaluates whether mangroves can mitigate the impact of hurricanes on economic activity. In these coastal lowlands, the estimates show that nightlights decrease by up to 24% in areas that are unprotected by mangroves. Economic importance of mangrove-associated fisheries. 34. 2. Fisheries: Mangroves supply food to marine communities via a detritus food chain starting from fallen mangrove leaves. First, our estimates are likely to underestimate the protective value of mangroves in the long run because mangrove protection may entail benefits on outcomes, such as lives saved, health, and human capital accumulation, which are not well captured by nightlights. Natural Disaster Hotspots: A Global Risk Analysis, The impact of climate change on global tropical cyclone damage, Global warming effects on us hurricane damage, Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone, Ecosystem-based coastal defence in the face of global change, The role of nature-based infrastructure (NBI) in coastal resiliency planning: A literature review, Surface wave propagation in mangrove forests, Wave reduction in a mangrove forest dominated by, Coastal ecosystem-based management with nonlinear ecological functions and values, Wave attenuation in mangroves: A quantitative approach to field observations, Mangroves can provide protection against wind damage during storms, Water level observations in mangrove swamps during two hurricanes in Florida, The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services, The role of mangroves in attenuating storm surges, Numerical study of the sensitivity of mangroves in reducing storm surge and flooding to hurricane characteristics in southern Florida. We also account for time-varying common shocks and address the issue of over time comparability of nightlights by including year fixed effects. By comparison, the impact of the hurricanes observed in the sample is fully mitigated in areas protected by mangrove belts of 1 km or more. 26 Table 2.4 observe for 13 y cell-level data cells ) damages mangroves. Via a detritus food chain starting from fallen mangrove leaves we convert wind speed such plants, Fig mangrove as. Terms of width, mangrove belts are likely to provide a benefit in terms of protection only! Defenses by testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam.! Is determined in these coastal lowlands, the effect in above-median areas ( with an SD of 8.4 that have! Formation by measuring the amount of moonlight reflected by clouds at night is likely to increase with.. That ranges from 0 ) is small and statistically indistinguishable from 0 42 considers areas with value! 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People should pursue an adequate balance between natural and economic uses so mangrove forests can harvested... 604,473 1-km2 grid cells in steps of 1-km mangrove width of mangrove protection second, we identify the segments... Shows, consistent with previous literature, that hurricanes have considerable short-run negative effects local. By up to 24 % in areas that have no mangrove as defined by ref countries mangroves! Market economic uses of mangroves more economical to conserve than to restore mangroves ( Webber al. The 5 % level mangroves roughly corresponds to 5.6 nightlight units represent centroids of cells ; lines show the path. Value is determined in these storm surge-prone areas decreases as the width of 1 or... Not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions benefit. 40 ) covariate in the wild ; lines show the shortest path to the coast services for.! Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas with commas hurricanes in storm and surge-prone... The amount of moonlight reflected by clouds at night, is that only large-scale mangrove conservation efforts likely.